David experiences the powerful force behind a flooding river.
Segment length: 7:19
- How do people control the flooding of rivers?
- Do these methods of control sometimes make matters worse?
It's hard to believe that a small, slow-running stream could cause harm. During a flood,
however, even the calmest brook can become a torrent and cause unforeseen misery and
Many people like to live near a body of running fresh water. Rivers and streams provide
recreation, food, and, of course, drinking water. But when rain or melting snow
produces large amounts of water, rivers and streams may flood, causing problems for
those who live nearby. Although we describe floods as disasters, they are, in fact,
Floods occur when a watershed receives so much
water that its waterways cannot drain it off properly. A watershed is an area of land (usually quite large) that drains into a
river or stream. A small river will drain several thousand or hundreds of thousands of
acres of land. Within any one watershed, excess rain
will cause increased water levels downstream. What occurs at any point along a river can affect not only that point but
also the entire watershed.
To minimize the effects of a flood, engineers build levees to constrict the overflow of rivers. As more communities build levees, the water in a river is forced to run at a
higher level because it cannot spread out. As the water runs at a higher level, it
deposits sediment and raises the riverbed. The
situation worsens as the water rushes downstream. The water level can only continue to rise, eventually spilling over the
levees. During prolonged periods of flooding, many levees give way because they are
under pressure from the swollen river and are being undercut by water seepage.
Floods in undeveloped areas are not as
damaging as the floods in developed areas. First
of all, many natural areas have thousands of acres of wetlands which act as giant sponges to soak up excess water.
Second, many rivers overflow into the floodplain--a low, flat area on either side of the river.
If a river is allowed to spread out onto its floodplain, the flow downstream is slowed.
A river's floodplain can accommodate huge amounts of water which are diverted from the main channel and held back. Allowed to flood in this way, the river creates less damage
downstream. If humans do not interfere with it, a stream or river produces its own
flood control system.
- Is there a problem with flooding in your area?
- What plan could you develop to improve the situation? Who would need to be involved?
- Can you design a levee that could withstand most floods? What would such a levee cost?
- Who would pay for it? How would it affect people living downstream from it?
acre an area of land equal to 4,047 square meters
(4,840 square miles)
developed areas places with roads, levees,
houses, factories, and other human-made structures
divert to channel something to another location
floodplain flat area on either side of a
river which is under water during a flood
levee a bermlike structure that acts as a barrier
to flood waters
riverbed the bottom of a river
undeveloped areas natural, wild areas
that are untouched by human development
vegetation generic name for all the plants in a particular area
watershed an area of land that drains into a
stream or river
wetlands marshy, wet areas which contain
wildlife species and have the capacity to hold large amounts of water
- Allen, W.H. (1993, Dec) The great flood of '93. BioScience, pp. 732-737.
- Brownell, B. (1993, Oct) The great flood of '93. National Geographic World, pp. 23-25.
- Mairson, A. (1994, Jan) The great flood of '93. National Geographic Magazine, pp. 42-81.
- National Geographic videotape: The Power of Water. Check local PBS listings or call
(800) 343-6610 for more information.
- Snyder, G. (1992, May/June) The watershed. Sierra, pp. 24-26.
Additional sources of information
American Water Resources Assn.
5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 220
Bethesda, MD 20814-2192
America's Clean Water Foundation
750 First St. NE, Suite 911
Washington, DC 20002-4241
725 Country Road 6
Wayzata, MN 55391-9611
National Water InformationClearinghouse
U.S. Geological Survey
423 National Center
Reston, VA 22092-0001
Water Education Foundation
717 K St., Suite 517
Sacramento, CA 95814-3408
Local Army Corps of Engineers
Soil Conservation Service field office for your area
The presence of a natural floodplain is crucial to the management of floods. When water
is allowed to spread out away from the main channel of a river, the river can
accommodate more water. If, on the other hand, a river's flow is prevented from
spreading, the only place for the water to go is up. An increase in water height means
higher water pressure and an increase in damage. How does the spreading out of river
water make a difference? How does it decrease water pressure? Try the following
activity to get the "feel" of water at different depths.
- roll of clear plastic (poly), 6 mil or thicker, wide enough to produce at least two
3.7 meter x 3.7 meter (12'x 12') sheets
- garden hose
- supply of water
Number of people: Eight or more. If you have fewer, cut down on the size of the
- Find a level, soft surface outdoors that is close to an outdoor water
spigot. Lay the plastic sheet flat on the ground. Depending on the thickness of your plastic, you
may want to use two sheets to increase strength.
- Organize participants around the perimeter of the sheet so that everybody
is at equal distances from each other.
- Each participant should firmly grab the plastic sheet with both hands.
- All participants should come together towards the center to form a large
"bowl" out of the plastic. Come together as close as possible. You can bunch up the plastic a little on your legs. There should be about 1.2 meters (4') between you and the person
directly across from you on the plastic sheet.
- Begin filling the plastic with water from the hose.
- From here on, the goal is to put as much water as possible into the plastic
without letting any escape. You can move about in any way you want to increase the capacity for
water. See what you learn about the force of water. How much water can you
- How does this activity compare to actual watershed problems? What are the
similarities and differences?
- What is the best arrangement to hold the greatest amount of water? What
arrangement requires the least effort? How deep a pool of water can you create? Can you devise a
way to estimate the total number of gallons you can hold?
- What would it take to create a better structure for holding more
What are the sources of water pollution in your area? One of the largest pollutants
could be city sewage. Call the local sanitation utility to find what is done to sewage
before it is dumped back into the stream or river. Visit a sewage treatment
Where does the water you drink come from? Does it come from a river? A lake?
Underground? Call the city water department to find out. Ask to visit the water
Does a river run through the city where you live? Look on a map and see whether you can
find any large cities that do not have rivers. List them. Where would their sewage go?
Where would their water supply be?
Do you know your watershed? If a drop of rain falls on your rooftop, where does it
eventually go? Trace its path. Map out the major streams and rivers that make up your
Newton's Apple is a production of KTCA Twin Cities Public Television. Made possible by
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