Colonial Policy|| |
Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1905
||Retrospect on the Development of the German Protectorates in the Pacific in 1904
(p.20) Here a
retrospect shall be undertaken on the German protectorates in the Pacific and
the events of 1904. Included are the old protectorat of Deutsch-Neuguinea, the
Carolinas, Palau and Marianas, in addition the Marshall Islands and Samoa.
There is little to report from the old protectorate of New Guinea. In the
Bismarck Archipelago a few white merchants have been murdered in November
1903. In March 1904 the ringleaders were arrested and punished. Of larger
scale was the murder of Catholic missionaries on the mission stations St.
Paul, Nacharunep and the Trappist settlement in the Baining Mountains on the
northwestern edge of the Gazelle Peninsula, which occurred on August 13th.
Victims were the patres Rascher and Rutten, brothers Bley, Plaschaert and
Schellekens, and the sisters Holler, Balkar, Utsch, Schmitt and Rath. As
lamentable as this event is, its importance is of local nature, and at no time
was peace and order threatened in the other parts of the Gazelle Peninsula.
Police troops succeeded to catch the persecuted murderers in the mountains.
The guilty were executed.
If we focus here first on the development of transportation we have to
mention, that the Norddeutscher Lloyd's Reich mail steamer branch line, as
before, connects, every six weeks, Singapore with Batavia, Makassar, Tamara,
Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen, Herbertshohe, Matupi, Brisbane to Sydney and back
along the same ports, in future will connect with the european mail steamer
line in Hongkong and Sidney. It will sail every 6 weeks and run further to
Kobe and Yokohama. In 1904 the Norddeutscher Lloyd has subsidized the
expansion of Simpsonhafen; the completion of the large installation may be
expected within a year. Considerable progress has been achieved in road
construction. The long road stretching along Neu-Mecklenburg's east coast is
With regard to the economic development, a regrettable reduction in the
collection of trepang and tortoise-shell has to be registered. All a
consequence of overfishing. On the other hand, despite sinking market prices
for mother-of-pearl clam fishery has expanded. Copra production also suffers
from price decreases. Cotton cultivation saw a small upturn. Satisfactory
successes have been achieved with cocoa. All in all, foreign trade has
On October 1st a new customs tariff took force, in consequence of which
stronger regulations regarding the import of opium have been passed.
A governor's decree of February 15th 1904 has to be mentioned, regulating the
immigration of Chinese into the protectorate and establishing a number of
There is nothing much to report from the Carolinas. In Ponape, S.M.S.
"Kondor" has anchored from end February to end March, has shown the
flag at almost all islands and undertaken surveys. The warship has installed a
buoy in the Langar Port, where the larger ships can moor. At first instance it
was thought of ships which take in coal at Langar. The indigenous' planting
activity everywhere is below expectation. Europeans' plantations again
expanded last year.
The same applies more or less for the West Carolinas and Marianas. On the
Marshall Islands, where everything was quiet in the report year, as in the
case of 1903 when an increased copra production was registered, another raise
in the copra harvest has to be expected for 1904. The construction of a
school, vividly called for on the last meeting of the Deutsche
Kolonialgesellschaft, on Saipan, is close to realization; the teacher will
have arrived there by now. No far-reaching hopes should be invested in the
Carolinas as settlement area.
(p.21) Samoa: In the center of interest of Samoa was the labour question
(Chinese question); certainly an indicator of peaceful labour, in order to
exploit the island's fertility. In last year the government organized the
procurement of coolies, which among others resulted in a considerable
reduction of the costs. At the end of 1905, about 700 to 800 Chinese worked on
Samoa. A committee has been appointed to prepare a decree fixing the
mutual rights and obligations of planters and workers.
News regarding unrest among the indigenous, so to speak under the impression
of reports from Suedwestafrika, have in no way proven true. A peaceful
development may be expected and we may assume that the head tax revenue, which
raised from 47,000 M. in 1902 to 70,000 M. in 1903, again will increase in
1904. In any case, on July 1st about 40,000 M. had been collected on Upolu and
about 30,000 M. on Sawaii, without the tax collection having been concluded.
The head tax amounts to 12 M. for heads of families, 4 M. for bachelors.
Samoa's trade balance is heavily influenced by the price of copra, so that in
1903, despite tha fact that copra production rose by 10 %, the total export
value fell by 300,000 Mark over the previous year. The protectorate further
suffers from the fact that the American administration in Tutuila sold the
copra, brought in by the indigenous, directly to San Francisco, while it used
to be taken over by German middlemen. Increasing pineapple exports are to be
registered. The reduction of cocoa exports is explained by the fact, that a
considerable part of the harvest has been utilized as seed on new plantations.
The increase of imports is caused by construction materials, ironwares, food
and valuable machinery for road construction and agriculture. The lion's share
of the imports, as in previous year, is taken in by articles the indigenous
consume. It is to be regretted that most of the cheap manufactured goods the
Samoans demand still are made in England.
The compensation question, waiting for a decision for 5 years now, has been
becated again in 1904. First, the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft's general
meeting in Stettin has asked Reich government to speedily deal with the
matter. Then the injured settlers have handed in a petition, finally around
christmas in a meeting in Apia they decided on an urgent petition, which has
been handed over to the German Reichstag.
During the 5 years of German rule the following postal connections in and from
Samoa have been newly installed or improved. We list them, because they show
how troublesome connection with our remote colony is. A connection which, as
is generally known, will experience a considerable shortening with the
completion of the Panama Canal. (1) connection of Apia with Sawaii, and
subsequently the establishment of post offices in Mulifanua, Salelavalu and
Fagamalo. (2) A postal money transfer service between Samoa and the USA since
October 1900. (3) Postal money transfer service between Samoa and Australia
with New Zealand since November 1st 1900 respectively January 1st
1901. (4) parcel service with the Union Line via Aden-Basel-Le Havre, since
1902 (a better connection could not be achieved !). (5) Parcel service with
Auckland on New Zealand and with places connected with it; not with the USA,
since September 1902. (6) Postal cash on delivery service with Germany;
raising of the postal money transfer minimum from 400 Mark to 800 Mark, since
April 1902. (7) expansion of the hitherto sole post office in Apia to
4 rooms, since July 1st 1903. (8) The postal service, hitherto taken charge of
by one person in addition to his regular (other) duties, now taken charge of
by two professional postmen. - so Reich postal administration's expenses for
the 'pearl of the Pacific' have exceeded revenues in the year between April
1902 and March 1903 by c. 15,000 Mark.
of 1904 (main titles)
Fritz, G., Chamorro-Wörterbuch (Chamorro dictionary). Berlin 1904. G. Reimer.
Neffgen, H., Deutsch-Samoanisches Konversationsbuch (German-Samoan
conversation book). Leipzig 1904. O. Ficker. 2.50 M.
Ribbe, Karl, Zwei Jahre unter den Kannibalen der Salomo-Inseln. (Two years
among the cannibals on the Samoa islands) Leipzig-Blasewitz 1903.
Elbgau-Buchdr. H. Beyer. hardcover 12 M.
Schnee, Dr. Heinrich, Bilder aus der Südsee. (pictures from the Pacific)
Berlin 1904. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen). hardcover 12 M.
Wohltmann, Prof. Dr. F., Pflanzung und Siedelung auf Samoa. (plantation and
settlement on Samoa) Berlin 1904. E. S. Mittler & Sohn. 5 M.
Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies
with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German
Colonial Society). Berlin 1905, p.20f|
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Dokument in deutscher