Colonial Policy|| |
Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1905
||Retrospect on Deutsch-Ostafrika's Development in 1904
(p.16) On the same
day as for Togo, that is on June 16th 1904, Reichstag has approved the
construction of the railway in the German-East African protectorate, which
insiders since over 10 years ago regard as urgently required to economically
open up the colony. For the time being only the funds for the 225 km long
stretch. from Daressalam to Morogoro have been provided; the Reich guaranteed
the newly formed East Afrikan Reilway Company annual interests of 3 % on their
capital of 22 million Mark and warrants to pay 20 % over the face value of the
shares sold and stamped-as-such, so that amortization will be accomplished in
87 years. As in Togo, a gauge width of at least 1 m has been prescribed.
Preparations for construction have begun in 1904. According to a credible
report, Morogoro will be reached within three years.
On the Usambara-Eisenbahn service on the 84 km long stretch
Tanga-Korogwe has seen no interruption. The reduction of the tariffs,
especially for the country's products, has been the right step, in every way.
The tariff lowering has given the incentive to the establishment of a number
of agricultural and industrial enterprises, especially of Agava plantations
and hemp factories, along the entire railway line. The railway's revenues did
not suffer from the tariff reduction.
For the time being the railway has been continued until Mombo on the western
foot of the Usambara mountains. Government complains about the low budget for road
construction; despite of this, it has continued to draw the road
Kilwa-Wiedhafen. Work on the large road connecting Lake Nyasa and Lake
Tanganyika have also been continued. At the request of the Colonial
Department, Governor Graf von Götzen gave a report last year, of which we
quote the following : All new roads and streets in Ostafrika follow the negro
paths, a network of which covers the entire country. In order to guarantee
better communication between the stations, steps have been undertaken to
prevent them from overgrowing. This work is done by the indigenous. They also,
instructed by supervisors (mostly NCOs) have constructed bridges and have, as
laymen, made accomplishments which demand respect. So today all stations are
connected with each other by roads, which are passable for pedestrians and
riders during the dry season, which however frequently are destroyed during
the rainy season. The expenses have been paid from the stations maintenance
fund, as there was no separate road fund.
Things have improved a little since the budget plan provides a one-time fund
for road construction. But roads which shall last longer than one strong rainy
season and which shall continue to serve in the wet months rarely can be
constructed for less than 7,000 to 10,000 Mark per kilometer. Roads passable
for wagons presently exist only from Daressalam in the direction of Morogoro
for about 60 km, as well as for short distances around the larger ports and
stations of the interior. Notwithstanding, on the remaining roads, in certain
seasons every now and then (p.17) a wagon may pass. A Boer would regard a road
as passable, which a settler, depending on a negro, incredibly clumsy in the
treatment of animals, regards impassable. The governor comes to the
conclusion, that regarding the large amount of precipitation and the
consequent lush grow of vegetation roads, in order to prevent obergrowth, have
to be constructed as solid as in Europe; road construction therefore will be
costly. Because of the danger of infectious animal diseases and the lack of
skill of the indigenous when it comes to deal with draught animals, Graf von
Gotzen thinks it proper to build every road with automobile traffic in mind.
During the entire year 1904, the protectorate has not seen unrest of any kind.
Singular acts of insubordination by the indigenous, of course, are always to
be registered. This peaceful year culminated on August 3rd and 4th, when the first
agricultural exhibition took place in Daressalam. As the wvent was
supported by a reduction of transportation fees and special steamers had been
scheduled, c. 500 Europeans had come from all parts of the colony, and from
Zanzibar and British East Africa, as well as thousands of Arabs and Indians.
The diversity of the exhibited items illustrated the diversity of
Deutsch-Ostafrika's production. We mention grain, begetables, oil plant
fruits, coffee, vanilla, pepper etc., industrial plants (cotton, caoutchouc,
capoc etc.), useful minerals, cattle, animal products as well as products of
industry and many more.
Agricultural effort focusses on cotton. During the exhibition days a
cotton conference took place which was frequented by numerous participants. In
1903 9,300 kg of cotton were exported at a value of 7,300 Mark. A number of
plantation owners in Daressalam, Tanga, Wilhelmstal, Lindi, Ssongea, Muansa
etc. undertook experiments in the plantation of cotton. The instruction of the
indigenous in the cultivation of cotton can proceed only slowly. Mainly they
are employed as workers on community fields and on privately owned fields.
Only in the Muansa District, a private businessman succeeded in instructing
the inhabitants of an entire region in the cultivation of cotton. Government
has passed a number of decrees to protect cotton cultivation. Cotton seed may
only be imported Tanga and has to be immediately examined by the
biological-agricultural institute at Amani. American cotton seed, because it
often contains parasites, is banned from import. If a planter discovers
parasites or suspects them, he has to send a probe to the institute in Amani.
If the cotton capsule beetle appears, the plantation will be destroyed by
fire, and in the area, for the next 20 years, cotton may not be grown. In
1904, the area under cotton cultivation has grown fivefold, so that a
corresponding expansion of the harvest is expected.
East African cotton is hardly inferior to Egyptian. It is of excellent
character and staple, is pure and only a little rougher than Joanowich.
In consequence of rich precipitation, the caoutchouc harvest has
increased by 80,000 kg or a value of 0.75 million Mark over that of 1902. In
order to maintain and extend caoutchouc production steps have been undertaken
to protect the colony's forests. Ivory is constantly receding. Copra
production, on the other hand, increases constantly. Only a few new coffee
plantations have been established in Usambara; more attention was given to
fibre plants. A number of new sisal hemp plantations emerged, mostly
near Tanga. The Hamburg Chamber of Commerce commented favourably on
Ostafrika's agava and sisal harvest.
In Usambara a number of saw mills have been established, which exploit the
forest and serve local demand.
The biological-agricultural institute at Amani serves as a model
institute for all efforts in economic civilization. It supports private
persons in agricultural experiments, gives advice upon request and distributes
seeds, plants and cuttings at low prices.
Regarding trade we only have figures for 1903; they justify optimistic
hopes. The protectorate's exports rose by almost 1.5 million Mark, imports
just under 2 million Marks. Imports at the coastal ports were about the same
level as those of last year. Complaints are raised about the influence of the
Uganda Railroad on Deutsch-Ostafrika's trade. Regarding the increased export,
caoutchouc takes first place, the increase amounting to over 0.75 million
Mark. Sisal hemp, coffee, ores and minerals also saw increased exports.
In the coastal areas, a lot of construction is going on; especially
private construction is on the increase. To be mentioned are the expansion of
the Lienhardt-Sanatorium (p.18) in Wugiri, which was completed on October 1st
1904 and was opened.
In the economy we note with satisfaction, that the planters, more and
more, form organizations.
In 1904 the currency question, long expected, has found a solution;
German silver rupees have been minted. There are pieces of 2, 1, 1/2 and 1/4
Rupee in silver, as well as copper coins of 1/100 Rupee (1 Heller) and 1/200
Rupee (1/2 Heller). The silver coins feature a portrait of the Kaiser. The use
of Indian rupees in the colony is estimated at 5-6 million rupees. The
Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft has had 3 1/2 million rupees, based on
its mint privilege. In order to regulate currency and to stabilize the value
of the ruppee in the protectorate, a Deutsch-Afrikanische Bank has been
established, which is entitled to issue banknotes.
Colonial Literature of 1904 (Main Titles)
Kandt, R., Caput Nili. (Capital of Nothing), Berlin 1904. Dietrich Reimer
(Ernst Vohsen). bound 8 M.
Karte von Deutsch-Ostafrika (map of Deutsch-Ostafrika) 1 : 300 000. Section G.
4. H. 4. Ssonega 2 M. G. 5. H. 5. Mittlerer Rowuma (middle Rowuma). Berlin
1904. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen). 2 M.
Grosser Deutscher Kolonialatlas. (Large German Colonial Atlas) edited by Paul
Sprigade and Max Moisel. Deutsch-Ostafrika 1 : 100 000. Sections Kilimatinde
and Neu - Langenburg. Berlin 1904. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen). a 1 M.
Leue, A., Die Besiedelungsfähigkeit Deutsch-Ostafrikas. (The suitability of
Deutsch-Ostafrika for settlement), Leipzig 1904. W. Weicher. 1 M.
Merker, M., Die Masai. (The Massai) Berlin 1904. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst
Vohsen). bound 8 M.
Prince, Magdalene, Eine deutsche Frau im Innern Deutsch-Ostafrikas. (A German
woman in Deutsch-Ostafrika's interior), 2. ed. Berlin 1905. E. S. Mittler
& Sohn. 3,50 M.
Schillings, C. G., Mit Blitzlicht und Buchse. Neue Beobachtungen und
Erlebnisse in der Wildnis, inmitten der Tierwelt von Aequatorial-Ostafrika.
(With flashlight and rifle. New observations and adventures in the wilderness,
inmidst Equatorial East Africa's fauna) Leipzig 1904. R. Voigtlander.
bound 14 M.
Spahn, Peter, Die Deutsch-Ostafrikabahn. (The German East African railroad)
separate print from "Hochland", Monatsschrift für alle Gebiete des
Wissens, der Literatur und der Kunst (monthly for all areas of science,
literature and the arts). 1903/04. number 5 and 6.
Velten, Prof. Dr. C., Praktische Suaheli - Grammatik nebst Worterverzeichnis
(Practical grammar of Suaheli with word list) . Berlin 1904. W. Baensch. bound
Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies
with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German
Colonial Society). Berlin 1905, p.16f|
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Dokument in deutscher