Primary Source
Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1906, Deutsch-Ostafrika

Size : including lake surface 995,000 square km (= twice the Reich).

Population : About 7 million. The most important element are Bantu negroes. The Bantu in the southern part of the colony are related to the Zulu. In the steppes of the north, until into the central region, the Massai which penetrated into the area from the north, live in statelets (Hamites, speaking languages of the Nilotic peoples). In the Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, as the ruling class among the Bantu, the Hamitic Wahuma or Watussi. To the Zulus of the south belong the Wahehe, living under tribal princes (in the Rufiji valley) and the Mafiti; both tribes migrated into the area coming from the south.
The Suaheli are an ethnic mix of Arabs and indigenous. Besides the indigenous, along the coast reside Arabs (from Muscat and Shihiri), Baluchis, Indians, Parsees, Goanese, Syrians, Egyptians, Turks. Europeans 1904 : 1437, of them Germans 1102. 1905 : 1873, of them 1324 Germans and 316 adult women. Since 1904 the immigration of Boers into the Kilimanjaro region (Moschi).

Morphology: Deutsch-Ostafrika is part of the plateau stretching from Abyssinia to Cape Town, rising from the Indian Ocean westward toward the interior. It is structured by several rifts extending in south-northerly direction and reaches hights in the protectorate of 1,000 - 1,500 m and more. At the northern border the double-peaked Kilimanjaro (western peak : Kibo, 6,010 m, eastern peak : Mawensi, 5,355 m), covers an area of 3,770 square km or 67 German square miles. To the left of the Kilimanjaro the Pangani, the Pare Mountains, steeply declining toward the west; to the east the Usambara Mountains. A continuation of the Pare Mountasins, on the right bank of the Pangani, the Useguha Terrasse. The Nguru Mountains form the beginning of the rim mountain range which continues through Ussagara and Uhehe and extends to the Nyassa. On the border between Ussagara and Uhehe the Ruhebo Mountains. In the Nyassa Mountains peaks of 3,000 m, on the northeastern corner of Lake Nyassa the Livingstone Mountains. In the protectorate's north west the mountains of Urundi and Ruanda. In the rift to the north of Lake Kiwu the Kirunga Volcanoes.

Hydrology : the plateau in general is dry. Rivers feeding into the Indian Ocean are, from north to south : the Umba, the Pangani (source at the Kilimanjaro), the Wami and Kingani (estuary opposite Zanzibar), the Rufiji, with the Kilombero and Ruaha; near the Rufiji estuary the island of Mafia; the Rowuma (border river in the south).
Into Lake Tanganyika feed the Mlagarassi, into Lake Victoria-Njansa the Kagera, the southernmost source of the Nile.
The three sweetwater lakes Lake Victoria (1,180 m above sea level, 66,000 square km = size of the Kingdom of Bavaria), Lake Tanganyika (795 m above sea level, 35,000 square km, size of East Prussia) and Lake Nyasa (500 m above sea level, 27,000 square km = province West Prussia) partially belong to the German protectorate.
To the west of the Kilimanjaro are located Lake Guassonjiro, Lake Ejassi and Lake Manjara. Lake Rikwa, located norteast of Lake Nyasa, has an altitude of 810 m and empties into a basin without outflow.

Climate : Deutsch-Ostafrika entirely belongs to the hot climactic zone. From May to September the Southwest Passate wind is blowing, from December to March the Northeast Passate. The winds carry moisture onto the land and determine the rainy and dry seasons.
Along the coast the short rainy season is expected in November, the long one in March and April. The coolest month is (p.16) July, with nightly temperatures of 16 degrees Celsius, over day up to 35 degrees and more.

Trade and Transportation : exported are unworked ivory, raw caoutchouc, sesame, copal, petrified resin and tree resin, coconuts, mats, hemp, indigenous lumber, horns, copra, coffee, hippopotamus teeth. Total value of exports 1902: 5 283 290 M., 1903: 6 738 906 M., including the 1903 for the first time listed exports across land borders : 7 054 207 M., 1904 : 8,950,565 M.; of this across the coastal border 7,666,285 M., across the inland border 1,284,280 M.
Imported are cotton products, peeled rice, iron and ironwares, wine, butter, lard, cheese, ham, bacon, meat, beer, petrol, vegetables and fruit, flour, tobacco, licquors etc., total value of imports 1902 8 858 4623 M., 1903: 10 688 804 M., including the imports across land borders 11 188 052 M.; 1904 : 14,338,880 M., of these across the coastal border 12,890,581 M., across the
inland border 1,448,307 M. The trade across the inland border is increasing, mainly in the Victoria-Nyansa region, because of the impact of the Uganda railroad.
On the 129 km long stretch Tanga - Korogwe the Usambara Railway is in regular service since early in 1905 - Construction of the Railway Daressalam - Morogoro (225 km), has been begun late in 1904 and makes steady progress. The southern line Kilwa-Wiedhafen has patially been drawn and researched.

On Lake Victoria the German Pinasse "Ukerewe" sails alongside a number of British steamers; on Lake Tanganjika "Hedwig von Wissmann", on Lake Nyassa "Hermann von Wissmann".

Seat of Government : Daressalam. The protectorate presently consists of 22 administrative districts. 14 of them are placed unter civilian administration : Tanga, Pangani, Bagamojo, Daressalam, Rufiji, Kilwa, Lindi, Wilhelmstal, Morogoro, Langenburg, Isongea and 11 under military administration : Kilimatinde, Mpapua, Iringa, Udjidji, Usumbura, Ssongea, Mahenge, Bismarckburg, Tabora, Muansa, Bukoba, Moschi [sic!]

Stations : Schutztruppe : Daressalam, Bukoba, Muansa, Moschi, Aruscha, Udjidji, Tabora, Kilimatinde, Iringa, Mpapua, Kondoa-Irangi, Lindi, Bismarckburg, Mahenge, Usumbura, Schirati, Ssongea. - Police Force : Wilhelmstal, Tanga (starting point of the railway to Mombo), Pangani, Sadani, Bagamojo, Dar esSalam (seat og government), Neu-Langenburg, Langenburg, Wiedhafen, Liwale, Kilwa, Tschole, Lindi, Mikindani, Mohoro, Kilossa.

Schutztruppe : 1905: 2010 men.


Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial Society). Berlin 1906, p.15f

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
posted on the web for psm-data; many thanks to

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz 

Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Dokument in deutscher Sprache