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Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1906, Retrospective on Deutsch-Ostafrika's Development in 1905
Retrospective on Deutsch-Ostafrika's Development in 1905

(p. 16) Unfortunately our Deutsch-Ostafrikan protectorate has, in 1905, not been spared of unrest. At the end of Juli the inhabitants of the Matumbi Mountains, north of Kilwa, became restless. They burnt several houses belonging to Indians in the coastal place of Ssamanga. The governor immediately dispatched two companies. The rebellion expanded, soon including further territories in the south of the colony.
A report came in according to which a Catholic bishop and a number of fratres and sisters have been murdered between Kilwa and Liwale, and that the latter station had been taken by the rebels. The governor immediately asked for reinforcements, and the "Bussard", which already anchored off Ostafrika's coast was added to by the cruisers "Seeadler" and "Thetis" which were dispatched by the East African station to Daressalam. Furthermore a compagnie belonging to the sea battalion was dispatched from Germany as reinforcement, and recruits were enlisted in Somaliland to fill the ranks of the black Schutztruppe; also indigenous from Neuguinea were shipped over to Ostafrika. The plan to enlist negroes from Togo and Kamerun has been rejected by the Reichstag. The rising did not (p.17) reach the scale first apprehended, and it also seems to have calmed down a little, so that we may express the hope, the hitherto peaceful development of the promising East African protectorate will be disturbed no more.
The trade figures lead ti the conclusion that the economic development of the protectorate is following an inclining line, the export rose from 1903 tp 1904 from 7.1 million to almost 9 million and the import from 11.2 million to 14.4 million Mark. Among the land's products caoutchouc is gaining more and more in importance, the export rose from 1903 to 1904 only for a couple of thousand kilograms, the gain at the current world market price makes a big difference. Lately the first steps have been undertaken to establish caoutchouc plantations, because the stands of wild growing rubber trees decrease. The introduction of cotton cultivation requires a lot of time and effort. At first the native has to learn for a long time to come from the European farmer, before he is sufficiently accustomed to become an independent, profitting cotton planter. Yet we can ascertain with satisfaction, that in the districts Tanga and Wilhelmstal, further in Mohoro, Lindi, Kilwa, Muansa during the report year a considerable number of natives has taken on cotton cultivation on small scale. In the Muansa district a planter succeeded in obliging a large number of natives by treaty to cultivate cotton and thus to start a popular cotton culture in that region.
Elsewhere, the cultivation of cotton by the indigenous is placed under the instruction of the administration.
The protectorate's ivory production declines in relation to the incessant decline of the elephant population; yet the value of the exports, due to high market prices, exceeded that of the previous year. Lately the collection of the wax and honey of wild bees is given increased attention. The production of fibre plants has more than doubled. The two sisal plantations Kikogwe and Buschirihof delivered double the amount of the previous year. The deplorable lack of labour obstructed a larger harvest. Fibre production takes an important position in the table of exports, with almost three quarters of a million Mark.
The biological-agricultural institute at Amani continues to provide a model for all efforts in the field of agricultural cultivation; here 52 ha were cleared and planted. Lately the government focusses on forestry. The main object is to create forest reservates and to administrate them according to the principles of forestry. At the present 75,000 ha of forest reservates exist, for the most part mangrove forests along the coast. Forestry under private administration is noteworthy only near the Tanga railroad. Here sawmills work parly to answer their own demand, partly the local demand, and only to a small extent for export.
The continuation of the Usambara Railroad has been taken into service on February 19th 1905 in the presence of Prince Adalbert of Prussia, over a length of 129 km, and it has stood the test in every way. For the time being it is planned to continue it only until Malinde, so that the Schume forest can be exploited.
The equipment of the Usambara Railroad has been added to by deliveries at the end of 1904 and in the spring of 1905 so that they can answer the demands of an increased traffic. There are five large and two smaller locomotives. Two passenger cars 2nd class for 32 persons each, two passenger cars 2nd class for 24 persons each, one passenger car 2nd class for 18 persons, two passenger cars 3rd class for 16 persons each, two passenger cars 3rd class without seats and two baggage cars with 7,000 kg capacity and 14 open freight cars with 12,500 kg capacity each, furthermore a water car, a cattle transport car and for bolster waggons. Main export articles are coffee, lumber, hemp, treebark, cotton. Stations along the railroad include Tanga, Muhesa, Korogwe and Mombo, to these 9 stops are added. On weekdays there is one train in each direction.
The construction of the Morogoro railway, which had been approved on June 16th 1904, and where Prince Adalbert made the first cut with a spade on February 9th, makes steady progress. At the beginning of October 1905 the rails have reached km 21, where the first station, Pugu, shall be constructed. At that time the railroad construction administration hoped to lay 90 km of rails and to hand 40 km over to traffic until christmas. In the 
port of Daressalam the port facilities have been considerably improved by the installation of cranes. Now the sleepers, rails, locomotives and waggons can be quickly offloaded from ocean steamers. The colonial press as well as Reichstag have repeatedly discussed the extension of the railroad beyond Morogoro, preliminarily until Tabora. Without that extension, the railroad will remain incomplete.
A publication from the economic committee of the German Colonial Society placed the southern railway line into the focus of the interest of the colonial friend. According to it, the Deutsch-Afrikanische Eisenbahngesellschaft has drawn a route for the first 100 km. The leading engineer believed that no obstacles of larger scale are to be expected.
As always, efforts have been undertaken in 1905 to extend the road network. It is hoped to widen the connecting road between Lake Nyassa and Lake Tanganyika that first trial waggons can be pulled over it. The paved overland road which shall connect Daressalam with Bagamoyo (70 km) has been completed until the Simbasi River, and this has been crossed by two iron bridges. Unfortunately the budget the governor disposes over for the purpose of road construction is rather limited. Reichstag, which frequently changed his mind over the last years, will also here have to decide to provide sums.
The white population of Deutsch-Ostafrika has increased very remarkably, namely from 1437 on January 1st 1904 to 1873 on January 1st 1905, that is an increase of 30 % and corresponds to the growth of German industrial cities. The fact that 316 adult women are among them is especially satisfactory. Among the individual occupations the number od settlers and farmers rose by 50 to 180, the number of workers and craftsmen etc. by 20 to 77. Of the 1873 white inhabitants, 1324 are Germans, 110 Greeks, 83 Boers, 78 Frenchmen (missionaries and sisters), 67 Englishmen (also missionaries), 60 Italians etc.
The estimation of the native population is still insecure. The estimated figure remains at about 7 million. There have not been migrations of important scale. It is observed that the Wajan and Wakua in the Lindi district slowly move northward. It is probable that a temporary immigration will take plave from the Congo Free State into the Udjidji district. The total population of Daressalam amounted to about 23,000, that of Tanga 6,658. Finally it is mentioned that the Reichstag member Dr. Paasche, the son of which, with his detachment from the "Bussard" had participated in numerous skirmishes against the rebels, has visited Deutsch-Ostafrica in late summer. This reknowned economist, who repeatedly has travelled North and Central America, and who is an expert in tropical agriculture like few others, gave the best prognosis for the future of our protectorate, so that we need not fear for the success of our cultivation.


Colonial Literature of 1905. (main titles)

Brode, Dr. H. Tippu Tip. Lebensbild eines zentralafrikanischen Despoten. Nach seinen eigenen Angaben dargestellt. (Biography of a Central African Despot; written on the basis of his own words) W. Baensch, Berlin 1905. 4,50 

Fusch, P. Die wirtschaftliche Erkundung einer ostafrikanischen Südbahn (The economic reconnaissance of the East African southern railroad), with 3 maps. Kol.-Wirtschaftl. Komitee, Berlin 1905.

Gurlitt, Kais. Reg.- und Baurat. Die ersten Baujahre in Deutsch-Ostafrika. (the first years of construction in Deutsch-Ostafrika) off-print from Ztschr. f. Bauwesen, 1905. W. Ernst & Sohn, Berlin. 3 M.

Raum, Miss. J. Kitabi Kya Mboú Tsa Bibbia Tsi Ndzisungusie Kui Madedo ha Kimotsi. Die Bibl. Geschichte i. d. Dschaggasprache. (Moschi-Dialekt.) (The Biblical Story in the Dschagga Language, Moschi Dialect) Verl. d. Ev. Luth. Mission, Leipzig 1905

Tiedemann, A. von. Aus Busch und Steppe. Afrikanische Expeditionsgeschichten. (From Bush and Steppe. African Expedition Stories) Winckelmann & Söhne, Berlin 1905. 3 M.

Winter, M. Anschauungen eines alten "Afrikaners" in deutsch-ostafrikanischen Bewirtschaftungsfragen. (The view of an old 'African' in questions regarding the economy of Deutsch-Ostafrika.) D. Reimer, Berlin 1905. 1 M.

Wolff, R. Grammatik der Kinga-Sprache (D.-Ostafrika, Nyassagebiet) nebst Texten und Worterverzeichnis. (Grammar of the Kinga language (D.-Ostafrika, Nyassa Region)) Arch. d. f. Studium deutscher Kolonialsprachen. Vol. III. edited by Geh. Reg.-Rat Prof. Dr. E. Sachau. In Komm. v. G. Reimer, Berlin 1905. 6 M.


Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial Society). Berlin 1906, p.16ff.

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Dokument in deutscher Sprache