Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1906, Retrospect on the
Development of the German Protectorates in the Pacific in 1905
Retrospect on the
Development of the German Protectorates in the Pacific in 1905
(p.20) After the murder in the Baining mountains on August 13th 1904, the
mission of the holy heart of Jesus has resumed its mission among the Bainings
early in 1905 and again moved into the station St. Paul. The murderers of the
missionaries, as well as those involved in it, have been held accountable.
Despite of these cases of unrest, the economy of the protectorate Neu-Guinea
progressed; yet not in the products gained by marine fishing. Partially, a steep
fall in prices proved an obstacle. As the main cause it is to be stated that the
resources have been exhausted more and more. All the more the losses have to be
countered by the extension of plantations and by opening up new cultures, and
indeed a remarkable expansion is shown in exports, both of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland
and the Bismarck-Archipelago.
Regarding transportation, an important agreement has been concluded in April
1905 between the Norddeutscher Lloyd and interested parties :
according to this the Lloyd establishes a regular service connecting the coastal
stations with Simpsonhafen and a towing service from there to the Gazelle
Peninsula. The economy thus has been placed on a solid foundation, the merchant
has been freed from the pressing burden of having to ship his goods on his own
account, the planter is provided with the opportunity to ship his goods cheaply
The motor schooner "Perle" and the steam schooner "Herzog Johann
Albrecht" were wrecked and have been totally lost. S.M.S. "Move"
has concluded surveys along the coast of Neu-Pommern between Cape Birari and
Cape Oxford. Since January 21st the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer
"Matupi" established a new connection every four weeks with China and
Australia, as a line Yokohama-Sydney was set up. Bridge construction in
Simpsonhafen made steady progress in 1905, so that the bridge could be
opened for service at the end of 1905. So the Norddeutscher Lloyd has created a
transportation hub for all surrounding island groups.
On the island groups acquired from Spain, the Carolines, Pelau and the Marianas,
hurricanes have inflicted great damage. So a hurricane (p.21) devastated on
April 20th the islands Ponape, Mokil, Pingelap and Kuseie. All houses were
destroyed, most of the trees annihilated, and many indigenous perished. In the
port of Ponape the motor schooner "Diana", belonging to the Jaluit
Corporation, stranded, also the government-owned motorship "Ponape".
The natives have gotten into a distressed situation, in consequence of these
natural events. Government councillor Berg grasped the opportunity to peacefully
disarm those of them who hitherto had refused this measure. The Ponape islander
handed in their guns and cartridges, in exchange for proper compensation, as the
inhabitants of the Truk group had done before. This success in Ponape is to be
rated even higher, as the Ponape islander, under the Spanish, often were
insubordinate and proved difficult to handle.
Unfortunately, ethnographic notes and statistical data regarding the indigenous
and non-indigenous population as well as the bastards, collected over a
number of months, have also been destroyed by the hurricane.
Saipan, the Marianas' main island, even has been twice hit by powerful
hurricanex, on August 27th and on November 8th.
On all island groups, increased cultivation is to be registered. In addition to
this extended cultivation by the indigenous, European enterprises expand, yet
one should not conceal that everything is still in an experimental phase.
For the Western Carolines the year's main event was the inauguration of the
cable station Jap on April 28th. So the installation of the cable
Menado-Jap-Guam-Shanghai has successfully been concluded, and the Dutch
possessions in further India, as well as a part of the German possessions in the
Pacific have become independent of British cables. In regard to the Marianas it
has to be stressed that the Japanese leaseholder has been replaced by a German;
also, the Japanese co-leaseholder of the northern islands and shareholder of the
Pagan Corporation sold out, so that this trade is now in Reich German hand and
the ships sail under the German flag.
The Marshall Islands, too, have been plagued by a terrible storm. The hurricane
and the tidal wave hit the Jaluit Atoll and the island Jabor most hard and
inflicted the heaviest damages, so that only one fifth of the coco trees
was spared. Also, the palm treees which have survived, will carry nuts only next
year, as the blossom was destroyed. Regarding the economic views of the natives,
it has to be rehistered with satisfaction that they began to replant the
devastated areas, a plantation which can only bring a full harvest ten years
from now. The coral dam on Jabor's sea side has been destroyed. Preliminarily, a
bulwark made from tree trunks has been established. Already when the S.M.S.
"Seeadler" anchored there on July 27th, the settlement did not look
that devastated any more.
There have been no cases of unrest on Samoa, but the actions of the
indigenous gave numerous causes for criticism. At the end of January, with the
knowledge and consent of the so-called indigenous government, a permanent
assembly of chiefs with Mataafa at its head, two imprisoned chiefs were freed.
But the deputy of the absent governor, at that time taking his vacation on New
Zealand, took energetic actions, and the indigenous
government gave in immediately and had the freed captives handed over posthaste.
In order to stress these measures, in May 1905 the S.M.S. "Condor"
appeared off Apia. Further cases of insubordination have not appreared.
After having waited for more than 5 years, in early December the settlers who
had suffered damage from Anglo-American bombardment in 1898 received partial
compensation from the 40,000 Dollars approved by the USA and Britain. So,
the justified claims, which had been supported a short time earlier by the
general assembly of the German Colonial Society, have been satisfied.
Samoa's imports declined, the exports increased a little, f.ex. the indigenous
have produced a little more copra than in the previous year. The export of cocoa
has also increased, and a further expansion of the harvest may be expected. It
has to be mentioned that a new corporation plans to establish caoutchouc
plantations on Samoa. The labour question has been lead a step further towards
its solution, as a second transport of chinese workers has been organized. Those
who arrived in April, around 500 in number, have, so far it can be judged by
now, fulfilled the expectations, but it should not be concealed that a number of
crimes have been committed by Chinese workers.
There have been further complaints against the rat plague, which went so far out
of control that a number of planters met late in October in Apia, to discuss
measures to be undertaken against it. On certasin plantations, because of
the destructive activities of the animals, havesting does not pay any more. It
is to be hoped, that the harmful rodents can be exterminated with consistence
Road construction progresses slowly on Upolu. On Sawaii a coastal road was
constructed in the Safotu District; locally, detonations have been undertaken.
The entire stretch had to be protected against surfs by a coastal wall.
Upolu, too, has been hit by a severe storm on Whit Monday, especially the area
around Apia. The storm lasted from 6 p.m. until midnight. The cocoa trees took
rather little damage; yet almost all shadow trees were toppled over.
On Sawaii the volcano erupted, and the eruption has not ended yet, so that it is
not yet possible to establish the amount of the damage. At years' end the
rumour, that plantations took heavy damage, was denied.
At the end of observations regarding the development of the German protectorates
in the Pacific it should be stated, that the steamer "Seestern" in
December shipped 150 indigenous from Deutsch-Neu-Guinea over to
Deutsch-Ostafrika, so that they can be trained as Askaris.
Colonial Literature of 1905. (main titles)
Das Deutsche Schutzgebiet Samoa. Allg. Auskunfts- u. Adressbuch, herausgeg. im
Auftr. u. mit Unterstutzung d. Kaiserl. Gouv. z. Apia. (The German Protectorate
Samoa. A General Directory, edited on the initiative and with the support
of the Imperial Gouvernment at Apia) new and improved edition, E. Luebke, Apia
1905. 2 M.
Fritz, Bezirkshptm G. Die Chamorro. Eine Geschichte und Ethnographie der
Marianen. (The Chamorro. A history and ethnography of the Marianas) off-print,
Ethnolog. Notizblatt, Vol.III, issue no. 3
Ribbe, C. Muschelgeld-Studien von Prof. Dr. O. Schneider. Nach den
hinterlassenen Manuskr. bearb. Herausgeg. v. Verein f. Erdkunde zu Dresden.
(Studies by Prof. O. Schneider on clam money, based on his manuscripts edited
by the Verein fuer Erdkunde zu Dresden (Dresden Geographical Society)) In Komm.
E. Engelmann, Dresden 1905. 10 M.
Schultz, Oberrichter Dr. Die wichtigsten Grundsätze des Samoanischen Familien-
und Erbrechts. (The most important principles of Samoan family and inheritance
law) E. Luebke, Apia 1905.
Schumann (gest.), Prof. Dr. K., and Dr. K. Lauterbach. Nachträge zur Flora der
deutschen Schutzgebiete in der Südsee (mit Ausschluss Samoas u. d. Karolinen.)
(Addenda to the Flora of the German Protectorates in the Pacific (excluding
Samoa and the Carolinas) with 14 plates. Gebr. Borntraeger, Leipzig 1905.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1906, p.20ff.|
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