Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1907, The German Protectorates in the Pacific
The German Protectorates in the Pacific
I. Deutsch - Neuguinea.
a) The Bismarck-Archipelago
Size : about 61,000 square km (roughly two thirds of Bavaria). The main
islands of the archipelago are Neu-Pommern with the Gazelle Peninsula and
Neu-Mecklenburg, separated by the St. Georgs-Kanal. In the northwest the
Admiralty Islands, the largest Manus. In the St. Georg-Kanal (p.21) the island
of Neu-Lauenburg. At the northwestern end of Neu-Mecklenburg the island
Neu-Hannover. Of the Solomon Islands the northernmost, Buka and Bougainville,
which play a role as recruiting areas for workers.
Population : is estimated at roughly 200,000 (Melanesians or Papua). The
European population amounted, on January 1st 1904 : 318 whites, of them 203
Germans. 1905 : 335 Europeans, of them 233 Germans. 1906: 383 whites, of them
Morphology and Hydrology : all islands are mountainous. On
Neu-Mecklenburg mountains up to a height of 1,200 m. Neu-Pommern has many
coastal rivers; the Holmesfluss on the Gazelle Peninsula. On Bougainville the
Kaisergebirge with the three-peak Balbiberg (3,067 m).
Climate : The Archipelago has a tropical climate, mildened by the
maritime surrounding. Average annual temperature 26 degrees. Lowest rainfall
mostly July to October.
Flora : Very lush vegetation. Dense forest with slim trees, lianas
winding around them. In higher altitudes treeless grass steppes. Cultivated
plants : coco palm; the plantation of rubber, cocoa, cotton in testing phase.
Fauna : No predators, no monkeys, i.e. an Australian fauna, for instance
marsupials. Birds of paradise, the most beautiful representative of a rich
Minerals : On Neu-Mecklenburg coal has been found on several locations,
but not yet worked.
Trade and Transportation : Copra, capoc, trepang, mother-of-pearl,
tortoise-shell, coffee. Value of exports 1903 953,066 M., of imports 2,114,957,
in 1904 : exports 1,210,071 M., imports 1,759,156 M., 1905 : exports 1,178,644
M., imports 2,271,300. Coffee export for the first time.
Trade is organized namely by the Deutsche Handels- und Plantagengesellschaft der
Südseeinseln and by the German merchant house Hernsheim & Co., as well as
by the house Forsayth (Ralum). Transit fee : Norddeutscher Lloyd : Genova or
Naples-Herbertshöhe 1st class 1,560 Mark, 2nd class 1.065 Mark, 3rd class via
Hongkong 740 Mark, via Sydney 420 Mark.
Post and Telegraph Services : by the end of 1907 : 7 offices, 2 of which
with telegraph service and local telephone service, yet without connection to
the world telegraph net; 31 km land telegraph line. 1904 (figures for 1905 not
yet available) : 120,000 letters, 1,739 postal money orders over 274,400 Mark,
976 parcels, 30,595 newspaper issues. Postal connection every 14 days. Period of
delivery Berlin-Herbertshöhe 40 to 43 days. Telegrams telegraphically to
Hongkong or Sydney, from there further by mail. Address according to the
following sample : "Poste, NN, Herbertshoehe, Hongkong."
Telegram fee per word to Hongkong 4.55 M., to Sydney 3.10 M. The last two
paragraphs also apply for Kaiser Wilhelmsland.
Administration : Seat of the Imperial Governor and district office :
Simpsonhafen (earlier Herbertshöhe). Other main places : Kaewieng, Namatanai,
Coloured police troop for all of Neuguinea 282 men.
Size : About 179,000 square km (half of Prussia). Located on the large,
partially British (Australian) and Dutch island of New Guinea.
Population : is estimated at 100,000, of them (at the beginning of 1904)
113 Europeans, 98 Germans. Melanesians or Papua, with many different, but
related dialects. 1904 : 113 Europeans, of them 98 Germans, 1905 : 128
Europeans, of them 115 Germans, 1906 : 149 whites, of them 130 Germans.
Hydrology : Along the 800 km long coast many coral reefs, smaller islands
and bays. The most important are the Huon Gulf and the Astrolabe Bay. In the
protectorate's north the Kaiserin-Augusta-River, navigable for larger vessels
for 200 sea miles, with favourable estuary not blocked by reefs. The Gogol River
feeds into the Astrolabebai, the Markhamfluss into the Huon Gulf.
Morphology : The interior is little explored. Between Huon Gulf and
Astrolabe Bay the Finisterre Mountains (3,475 m); between it and the coast a
coastal mountain range reaching 1,000 m altitude. In the interior the yet
unknown Kraetke Chain, further north the Bismarck Chain. The expedition lead by
Dr. Lauterbach, Dr. Kersting and E. Tappenbeck, dispatched in 1896, is to be
creddited with the discovery of the long, largely navigable Ramu River. A newer
expedition has confirmed the identity of that river with the Ottilienfluss; the
steamer "Johann Albrecht" steamed 200 km upriver.
Climate : marked dry climate. Along the coast highest temperature in the
shadow 35 degrees Celsius, lowest 20 degrees, average annual temperature 26
degrees. Between April and September south east passate, from October to March
north west monsoon. Clear distinction between dry and rainy season in most years
not notable. The main rainy season depends on the fact, if the respective region
is more exposed to the passate or monsoon wind (p.22). Thus the rainy season, at
different places, sets in at different times.
Flora, Fauna : see under Bismarck-Archipelago.
Trade and Transportation : main export articles : copra, a little capoc,
trepang, mother-of-pearl. 1903: export 243.654 M., import 798.857 M., 1904:
export 54.272 M., import 566.503 M., 1905: export 156.043 M., import 666.316 M.
Navigation, Post & Telegraphy : see Bismarck-Archipelago.
Administration : Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen. Main places with European
residents : Berlinhafen, Potsdamhafen, Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen, Stephansort,
c. The Carolines,
Pelau-Islands, Marianas and Marshall-Islands
Size : The island groups which previously have been a Spanish possession
have been acquired by purchase by the German Empire in June 1899. The Carolinas
have an area of about 1,600 square km (of which the Palau islands 450 square
km). The Marianas have an area of 626 square km. The number od all these islands
is 800. The main islands of the Carolinas are : Kuseie, Ponape, Truk and Jap.
The most important island of the Palaus is Baobeltaob. The main Mariana Islands
are Seipan and Tinian.
Population : East Carolinas 25,000 natives, 1904 : 89 whites, of them 32
Germans. 1905 : 92 Europeans, of them 37 Germans, 1906 : 77 whites, of them 38
Germans. West Carolinas 1905 : 13,264 natives (of them the Pelau Islands 3,748),
1904 : 36 whites, of them 11 Germans, 1905 : 47 Europeans, of them 16 Germans,
1906 : 73 whites, of them 36 Germans. Marianas 1905 : 2,508 natives, 1904 : 13
whites, of them 7 Germans, 1905 : 22 Europeans, of them 16 Germans, but 21
Japanese (10 less than in the previous year), 1906 : 23 Europeans, of them 18
Hydrology and Morphology : the highest point is the Tolokome, 870 m.
Climate : average annual temperature 27 degrees. Rainy season on the
eastern islands June to September, on the western islands June to August
Flora : The western islands have a richer flora than the eastern ones.
The coco palm is almost the only domesticated plant.
Fauna : Of the mammals originally only bats. Imported were rats. A rich
avifauna, also many species of fish, few species of insects. Domesticated
animals : almost everywhere dog, cat and pig.
Minerals : On the Palau Islands profitable coal deposits.
Trade and Transportation : Exported from all island groups mentioned :
copra, trepang, tortoise-shell, mother-of-pearl. Imported : textiles, tobacco,
food, etc. 1903: export from the Eastern Carolinas 180.740 M., 1904: 200.395 M.,
1905: 101.591 MWestern Carolinas 1903: 359.059 M., 1904: 125.818 M., 1905:
136.046 M., Marianas 1903: 230.576 M., 1904: 153.777., 1905: 97.001 M. Import to
the Eastern Carolinas 1903: 338.749 M., 1904: 381.000 M., 1905: 314.634 M.,
Western Carolinas 1903: 442.110 M., 1904: 209.370 M., 1905: 1.392.325 M.,
Marianas 1903: 71.989 M., 1904: 119.770 M., 1905: 175.772 M.
Transit passage : Norddeutscher Lloyd and Jaluit Gesellschaft, Genoa or Naples -
Jap until Hongkong, 1st class 1,250 M, II. class 860 M., III. 495 M., from
Hongkong cabin 200 M., deck 80 M., until Sydney I. 1230 M., II. 700 M., III. 265
M., from Sydney cabin 600 M., deck 260 M.
Post & Telegraph Service : By the end of 1906 4 post office, of which
one in direct communication with the cable station. 1905 : 12,200 letters, 278
postal money orders over 29,700 M., 203 parcels, 7,880 newspaper issues.
Postal connections twice every 18 weeks, delivery Berlin-Jaluit 40-72 days.
Telegrams : by telegraph direct to Jap, for Ponape or Seipan telegraphically to
Jap or Sydney, from there on by mail. Adress as follows : "Poste N.N.,
Seipan, Jap." Fees for telegrams per word to Sidney 3,10 M, to Jap 5,05 M.
Administration : Seat of district administrations are : Ponape, Jap, and
II. The Marshall
Size : about 400 square km (larger than
the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe), distributed over about 353 islands.
Population : about 15,000, pure Micronesians of rather light skin, 1904 :
81 whites, 61 Germans, 1905 : 84 whites, 66 Germans, 1906 : 83 Europeans, of
them 65 Germans.
Climate : very humid and warm, regular tropical climate (27 degrees
Celsius). On average ca. 300 rainy days per year, annual precipitation 4000 to
Flora : less than 100 species. Main cultivated plant, here too, the cocos
Fauna : mammals originally lacked completely. Introduced : dog, cat, pig,
rat, mouse, many waterfowl.
Minerals : on Nauru rich phosphate deposits, exploitation has been begun.
Trade and Transportation : main export articles : copra, trepang,
1903: 522,210 M., 1904: 583,353 M., 1905: 700,054 M. The value of imports was,
in 1903: 497,794, 1904: 444,198 M., 1905: 651,104 M. (p. 23)
Transit fee : Norddeutscher Lloyd and Jaluit-Gesellschaft Genoa or
Naples-Jaluit, until Hongkong I. 1250 M., II. 860 M., III. 495 M. from Hongkong
cabin 500 M., Deck 200 M.; until Sydney I. 1230 M. II. 700 M., III. 265 M., from
Sydney cabin 300 M., Deck 120 M.
Post and Telegraphy : end of 1906 : 1 post office. 1905 : 12.200 letters,
278 postal money orders over 29.700 M., 203 parcels, 7880 newspaper issues.
Postal connections : twice every 18 Wochen, delivery Berlin-Jaluit 49 to 60
days. Telegrams: to Sydney or Jap by telegraph, from there on by mail; adress
according to the following example: "Poste NN, Jaluit, Jap." fee per
word to Sydney 3,10 M., to Jap 5,05 M.
Administration : Jabor on Jaluit used to be seat of the Imperial
Landeshauptmann. Since April 1st 1906 the islands have been placed under the
administration of the Protectorate Neu-Guinea. District office on Nauru.
III. The Samoa Islands
Size : Since Nov. 14th 1899 respectively March 1st 1900, the following
islands belong to the German protectorate of Samoa : Sawaii (1,691 square km),
Upolu (868 square km, seat of the government), Manono (8,5 square km), Apolima
(4,7 square km), total 2,572 square km (= the size of the Duchy of
Sachsen-Meiningen). The other islands of the Samoan group belong to the U.S.A.
Morphology And Hydrology : Sawaii and Upolu are mountainous (highest peak
the Manga-Loa, 1,646 m) and volcanic. The rivers form many cascades, because of
the terrasse-shaped structure of the islands.
Population : 1902 : 32,612 aborigines, 1906 : 33,478. Europeans 1903 :
381, among these Germans 192, 1906 : 454 whites, among them 258 Germans, in
addition a population of mixed descent, about 815 heads, 770 Chinese.
Climate : tropical (May to September southeast passate). Average annual
temperature 25,70 degrees Celsius. Samoa's climate is healthy.
Flora : lush vegetation; even steep cliffs are overgrown. Species of fern
are frequent. Cultivated plants : coco palm, cocoa (of excellent quality) and,
according to recent experiments, rubber.
Fauna : of the mammals originally only bats. Imported dogs and cats,
pigs, unfortunately also rats. Land and sea rich in lower life forms.
Trade and Transportation : Export mainly of copra and fruits, and recently
of cocoa. Import of consumer goods and textiles, construction material, metal
Exports 1903: 1,384,507 M., imports 2,681,405 M., 1904 exports: 1,674,881 M.,
imports: 2,316,878 M., 1905 exports 2,028,718 M., imports: 2,881,930 M.
Navigation : on Apia's roadsted in 1903 were counted 111 each of arriving
and departing ships with a total of 46,514 resp. 46,324 reg.-tons. 1904 :
arriving 94 ships with 44,425 tons, departing 92 ships with 44,287 tons.
Apia is connected by steamers of the Union Steamship Co. which arrive every four
weeks and steam the line Sydney-Auckland. In addition, every 3 weeks steamers of
the Oceanic Steamship Co. dock at Tutuila on Pango-Pango, from where a local
steamer connects to Apia. Travel via Australia 60 days, via America 30 days.
Passage fee : Norddeutscher Lloyd until Sydney, Oceanic S.S. Co. of San
Francisco until Pago Pago : 1st class 1,640 M, 2nd class 966,25 M, 3rd class
418,25 M, from Pago Pago to Apia 1st class 32 M, 2nd class 21,35 M.
Post & Telegraph Service : End 1906 : 6 post offices, among them 1
with local telephone service. 1905 : 171,300 letters, 3,646 postal money orders
over a total of 916,300 M., 1,066 parcels, 20,096 newspaper issues. Mail
delivery all 4 weeks, time of delivery Berlin-Apia 27 days. Telegrams : by
telegraph to Auckland or Levuka, Souva or Honolulu, from there further by mail.
Address as follows : Poste N.N., Apia, Auckland. Telegram fee per word to
Auckland, Levoka, Souva or Honolulu 3,10 M.
Administration : seat of the governor Apia on Upolu. Gouvernor presently
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1907, p.20ff.|
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Dokument in deutscher