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Imperialism | Colonial Policy

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Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1907, Kiautschou
Kiautschou.

History : The territory of the Kiautschou area, located in the Chinese province of Schantung, was occupied by the landing detachment of the cruiser squadron under the command of Vice Admiral von Diederichs on November 14th 1897.
After a treaty with the Chinese government, signed March 6th 1898, ceded all claims the Chinese government had within the area for a lease over 99 years, it had been proclaimed, by Imperial edict, a German protectorate, on April 27th 1898.
The administration of the Kiautschou Protectorate is placed under the Reichs-Marine-Amt.

Size : The protectorate includes the entire water body of Kiautschou Bay up to the high water mark, furthermore the northern and southern promontory at it's inlet up to suitable ridges (46,6 respectively 461,5 square km), as well as the islands located within the bay (p.26) and in the sea off the bay (43,6 square km). The total land area amounts to 551,7 square km (roughyly the size of Hamburg). In addition a zone has been established within which the Chinese government cannot implement any reform without German approval; the border of this line is 50 km distant from the protectorate; this zone covers roughly 1/2 the Kingdom of Saxony.

Population : according to a census undertaken in the city area of Tsingtau in 1905 28,477 Chinese and (except military personnel) 1225 Europeans. To these, 207 Japanese have to be added (55 more than in the previous year).
The population of the rural district has been estimated at 100,000; the population of the 50 km zone is unknown.

Morphology and Hydrology : On the northern promontory the Lau-Schan, up to 1,130 m high. Almost the entire peninsula of Schantung is covered by a 600 km long mountain range; it is separated from China's other mountain chains by a large plain, and by another plain connecting Kiautschou Bay with the Gulf of Chili it is separated in two. The protectorate lacks navigable rivers. The hinterland borders on the Hwangho, which flows down steeply.

Climate : highest temperature 33 degrees, lowest minus 11 degrees. Average annual precipitation over 500 mm.

Flora : Cultivated plants : grain, beans, potatos, tobacco, fruit trees. Forests, because of Chinese maladministration, destroyed. The Germans reforest the area.

Fauna : The Kiautschou area has few animals. In spring and autumn many migratory waterfowl pass by.

Minerals : The exploitation of the coal field at Wei-hsien was begun on October 1st 1902. The first coal train arrived at Tsingtau on October 30th 1902. Since, exploitation proceeds through the pit Fang-tse. For the processing of the coal, a mechanical separation apparatus has been established. Next to a drilling hole drilled about 70 m to the north of Fang-tse, a second pit (Minna-pit) for voluminous hauling of coal is planned; drilling has begin in summer 1904. To complete the Fang tse mines, another main hauling pit (Annie-pit) is drilled in the vicinity of the railway station Fang tse, since June 1904. In the Po-schan coal field, works on drilling a pit (Tse-tschnan-pit) have begun in the summer.
The activities of the "German Corporation for Mining and Industry abroad" hitherto focussed on mine exploration in various regions of the hinterland for the purpose of gold and mica mining. - Iron, too, is found in the hinterland of Kiautschou.

Trade and Transportation : a large port with piers. Swimming dock (16,000 tons capacity) and shipyards largely completed. 
The Schantung Railway, starting in Tsingtau, leads to the Schantung Mining Company's coal fields near Wei-hsien and Po-schan and further to Tsinan-fu (435 km). The first train arrived at Tsinan=fu on February 23rd 1904; the entire line including branch line in the Po-schan valley began regular operation on June 1st 1904.
The hinterland provides, for export to Europe, especially straw products and silk pongees. The trade statistics figures largely refer to transfer goods. Over four fifth of the imports are transported into the interior, by the 
railway. By agreement with the chinese government, the free port area, which hitherto covered the entire colony, has been limited, as of January 1st 1906, to the port itself and adjacent terrain. To facilitate trade, the entire protectorate has been incorporated into Chinese customs territory.
Total export from October 1st 1903 to October 1st 1904 about 14.7 million Mark, 1904/05 : c. 20 million Mark. Total import of goods not of Chinese origin (without railroad and mine construction material) 1903/04 about 24 million Mark, 1904/05 : c. 37 million M., Total import of goods of Chinese origin 1904/05 : more than 12 million M.; Cotton products take the first place.
Transit passage : Norddeutscher Lloyd, Genova of Naples-Tsingtau I. 1300 M., II. 910 M., III. 520 M.

Post and Telegraphy :
At the end of 1906 7 post offices, of them 1 with telegraph and local telephone service. 1905 : 3,024,600 letters, 14.613 postal money orders over a total amount of 799,882 M., 13,728 parcels, 366,439 newspaper issues, 30,870 telegrams, 339,084 telephone calls. 
Delivery : once every five days, time of delivery 38 to 39 days. Telegram fee 4.55 M per word.

Administration : Seat of the Governor is Tsingtau (presently Counter-Admiral Truppel). The protectorate is placed under the Reichsmarineamt. District office Litsun.

Garrison : 63 officers and medical doctors, 1816 NCOs and troops, 62 Chinese (police) troops.



 


Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial Society). Berlin 1907, p.25f

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