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Imperialism | Colonial Policy

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Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1907, Togo

Togo (p.7)

Border : The German-French treaty dated July 23rd 1897 determines the colony's borders to the north and east; the border to the west was determined via the exchange of notifications between Berlin and London in 1904. The total area of the protectorate has been calculated at about 87,200 square km (larger than Bavaria, more than double the size of the province Silesia)

Population : January 1st 1906 : 243 Europeans, of them 232 Germans and 39 adult women. The black population, hitherto optimistically estimated at 2.5 million, numbers at best about 1,000,000 (according to estimates). 
The south is inhabited by Evhe-Negroes, to the north of them dwell related smaller tribes, further north follow various peoples, partially independent pagan tribes, partially such under muslim rulers.

Irrigation and Geomorphology : Strong surf along the 52 km long coast; disembarkation and loading/offloading of cargo difficult. The peer completed since 1905 at Lome has improved the situation; now passangers can disembark and cargo can be offloaded without damage. The estuary of the Volta river, navigable in it's lower stretch, is located on British territory. To the south of the 7th degree of latitude, the lower stretch of the Mono forms the border to French Dahomey. The Haho River, entirely located on German territory and emptying into the Togo Lagoon, is navigable only for light shipping (canoes) and only in the vicinity of it's mouth; it has water year round.
In the central area of the protectorate, a clearly structured, richly forested mountain range stretches in S-N direction, rarely beyond 600 m in height. The Agu massive, in front of the mountain range aforementioned, is about 1,000 m high.

Climate : In the coastal area the average annual temperature is 26 degrees Celsius, in the interior 23 degrees Celsius. At the coast two clearly distinct rainy seasons, separated by dry seasons, from April to July and from September to the end of November; the latter sometimes fails to appear (drought years). The further into the interior, the closer do both rainy seasons approach each other. In Northern Togo the fall rainy season is more 
productive than that in spring, in southern Togo the other way round.
Precipitation along the coast 700 mm annually, in the interior it reaches 1200 to 1600 mm. The Harmatan, a hot, dry wind from the land, blows in December and the first half of January.

Flora : Along the swampy coast palm trees and mangroves. The tree characteristic for the entire coastal stretch is the cocos palm tree. In the hinterland grass savannahs, rarely interspersed by trees. Forests only along rivers and on mountain slopes.
Economic plants : cocos palms, caoutchouc trees, maize, peanuts, yams, cassada, cotton, cocoa, lumber.

Fauna : The coastal area lacks large animals. Further in the hinterland numerous monkey species, larger beasts of prey (lions, leopards, cheetahs, hyaenas). Rich, colourful avifauna. Many species of snakes, among them the boa constrictor. Domesticated animals : sheep, goats, pigs, dogs; rarely horses, poultry.

Minerals : near Banjeli iron ore deposits, hitherto waiting to be exploited. In the Ssolo Mountains graphite deposits.

Trade. Export : main products : palm oil, palm kernels, maize, caoutchouc, ivory, life animals. 1902: 4,194,017 M., 1903: 3,616,061 M., 1904: 3,551,358 M, 1905: 3,956,639 M.
Import : cotton goods, spirituals, iron and iron tools, wood and wooden products, tobacco, cigars, gunpowder, materials. 1902: 6,206,477 M., 1903: 6,104,863 M., 1904: 6,898,323 M., 1905: 7,760,314 M. - Number of the merchant houses and businesses resident in the protectorate on January 1st 1906 : 23, with 28 branch offices and 161 sales stores.

Traffic : shipping 1905 : 247 ships with 419,000 register tons, coastal railway Lome-Anecho (45 km) opened on July 18th 1905, Lome-Agome-Palime, (123 km), Reichstag decision of June 16th 1904 approved a credit of 7.8 million Mark. Construction begun in October 1904, completed in January 1907. Postal and Telegraphic service : at the end of 1906 6 offices, of them 6 with telegraphic service; 262 km land telegraph cables. Traffic 1905 : 208,000 letters, 9,203 postal money orders over a total amount of 2,153,200 M., 6,080 parcels, 31,853 newspaper issues, 16,303 telegrams, 3,534 telephone calls. Postal connections : four times a month, time for delivery Berlin-Lome 17 to 23 days. Telegram fee per word 5,30 M.

Townships : along the coast : Sebe, Anecho, Porto Seguro, Kpeme, Bagida, Lome; in the interior Adschido, Togo, Amedschovhe, Ho, Noepe etc. District offices : Lome. Anecho und Misahohe. Stations : Kpandu, Kete-Kratji, Jendi, Sansane-Mangu, Basari, Bismarckburg, Atakpame and Sokode. (p. 8)

Administrative Districts : Lome-Town and Lome-Land, Anecho, Misahöhe, Atakpame, Kete-Kratji, Sokode. Mangu-Jendi. Seat of the governor - at present Count v. Zech auf Neuhofen - is Lome. Police troops placed under German military personnel are stationed with the district offices and stations (150 coloureds).



 


Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial Society). Berlin 1907, p.6f

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