Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1907, Togo
Border : The German-French treaty dated July 23rd 1897 determines the
colony's borders to the north and east; the border to the west was determined
via the exchange of notifications between Berlin and London in 1904. The total
area of the protectorate has been calculated at about 87,200 square km (larger
than Bavaria, more than double the size of the province Silesia)
Population : January 1st 1906 : 243 Europeans, of them 232 Germans and 39
adult women. The black population, hitherto optimistically estimated at 2.5
million, numbers at best about 1,000,000 (according to estimates).
The south is inhabited by Evhe-Negroes, to the north of them dwell related
smaller tribes, further north follow various peoples, partially independent
pagan tribes, partially such under muslim rulers.
Irrigation and Geomorphology : Strong surf along the 52 km long coast;
disembarkation and loading/offloading of cargo difficult. The peer completed
since 1905 at Lome has improved the situation; now passangers can disembark and
cargo can be offloaded without damage. The estuary of the Volta river, navigable
in it's lower stretch, is located on British territory. To the south of the 7th
degree of latitude, the lower stretch of the Mono forms the border to French
Dahomey. The Haho River, entirely located on German territory and emptying into
the Togo Lagoon, is navigable only for light shipping (canoes) and only in the
vicinity of it's mouth; it has water year round.
In the central area of the protectorate, a clearly structured, richly forested
mountain range stretches in S-N direction, rarely beyond 600 m in height. The
Agu massive, in front of the mountain range aforementioned, is about 1,000 m
Climate : In the coastal area the average annual temperature is 26
degrees Celsius, in the interior 23 degrees Celsius. At the coast two clearly
distinct rainy seasons, separated by dry seasons, from April to July and from
September to the end of November; the latter sometimes fails to appear (drought
years). The further into the interior, the closer do both rainy seasons approach
each other. In Northern Togo the fall rainy season is more
productive than that in spring, in southern Togo the other way round.
Precipitation along the coast 700 mm annually, in the interior it reaches 1200
to 1600 mm. The Harmatan, a hot, dry wind from the land, blows in December and
the first half of January.
Flora : Along the swampy coast palm trees and mangroves. The tree
characteristic for the entire coastal stretch is the cocos palm tree. In the
hinterland grass savannahs, rarely interspersed by trees. Forests only along
rivers and on mountain slopes.
Economic plants : cocos palms, caoutchouc trees, maize, peanuts, yams, cassada,
cotton, cocoa, lumber.
Fauna : The coastal area lacks large animals. Further in the hinterland
numerous monkey species, larger beasts of prey (lions, leopards, cheetahs,
hyaenas). Rich, colourful avifauna. Many species of snakes, among them the boa
constrictor. Domesticated animals : sheep, goats, pigs, dogs; rarely horses,
Minerals : near Banjeli iron ore deposits, hitherto waiting to be
exploited. In the Ssolo Mountains graphite deposits.
Trade. Export : main products : palm oil, palm kernels, maize,
caoutchouc, ivory, life animals. 1902: 4,194,017 M., 1903: 3,616,061 M., 1904:
3,551,358 M, 1905: 3,956,639 M.
Import : cotton goods, spirituals, iron and iron tools, wood and wooden
products, tobacco, cigars, gunpowder, materials. 1902: 6,206,477 M., 1903:
6,104,863 M., 1904: 6,898,323 M., 1905: 7,760,314 M. - Number of the merchant
houses and businesses resident in the protectorate on January 1st 1906 : 23,
with 28 branch offices and 161 sales stores.
Traffic : shipping 1905 : 247 ships with 419,000 register tons, coastal
railway Lome-Anecho (45 km) opened on July 18th 1905, Lome-Agome-Palime, (123
km), Reichstag decision of June 16th 1904 approved a credit of 7.8 million Mark.
Construction begun in October 1904, completed in January 1907. Postal and
Telegraphic service : at the end of 1906 6 offices, of them 6 with telegraphic
service; 262 km land telegraph cables. Traffic 1905 : 208,000 letters, 9,203
postal money orders over a total amount of 2,153,200 M., 6,080 parcels, 31,853
newspaper issues, 16,303 telegrams, 3,534 telephone calls. Postal connections :
four times a month, time for delivery Berlin-Lome 17 to 23 days. Telegram fee
per word 5,30 M.
Townships : along the coast : Sebe, Anecho, Porto Seguro, Kpeme, Bagida,
Lome; in the interior Adschido, Togo, Amedschovhe, Ho, Noepe etc. District
offices : Lome. Anecho und Misahohe. Stations : Kpandu, Kete-Kratji, Jendi,
Sansane-Mangu, Basari, Bismarckburg, Atakpame and Sokode. (p. 8)
Administrative Districts : Lome-Town and Lome-Land, Anecho, Misahöhe,
Atakpame, Kete-Kratji, Sokode. Mangu-Jendi. Seat of the governor - at present
Count v. Zech auf Neuhofen - is Lome. Police troops placed under German military
personnel are stationed with the district offices and stations (150 coloureds).
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1907, p.6f|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher