Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1907, Kamerun
Size : 495 600 square km (= Deutsches Reich). The border with the British
neighbouring colony has been finally determined in 1905, the one with French
Congo in 1906.
Population : about 3500000 (?) inhabitants, among them 1903: 710, 1904 :
826, 1905 : 896 Europeans, of whom 773 Germans and 102 adult women. Main
indigenous tribes in the hitherto explored areas : In the North and Northeast
the grassland tribes of Adamaua, under Fullah rule, of whom the Bata, Tikar,
Baia and Wute are the best known. Closer to the coast down to the southern
border follow the Bafut and Bali, Banjang, Bakundu and Ngolo, Bamboko, Bakwiri,
Duala, Batanga and Mabea and finally the Bule (Fang). The region between coastal
and grassland tribes, thus the middle valley of the Sanaga and Njong, is
populated by Bakoko tribes, on which, futher east, follow the Jaunde, Bane and
Jengone, which all are related with the Bule, which inhabit almost the entire
south. In the river areas of the Dscha, Bumba and Ssanga the Janguma, Njem,
Ndsimu, Bomome and Maka dwell. To be mentioned are further the Nguma on the
Lokundje, tribal fellows of the Njem and Maka.
Morphology : The highest mountain range on the Atlantic rim is the range
of Mt. Kamerun (4070 m.) which in north-eastern direction blends into the
Bakossi Mountains. etc. In general, the protectorate's surface rises in
terrasses in earterly/northeasterly direction (Adamawa Mountains up to 3,000 m,
Nguakeli in the south c. 1500 m). An imaginary line drawn from Bali along the
mouth of the Mbam to the tributaries of the Ssanga roughly indicates the border
of the continuous coastal jungle.
Rivers : (from north to south) : The Rio-del-Rey area with several
tributaries, also the Kamerun river in which the Mungo, Dibambu and Wuri feed,
both are vast estuaries covered by mangrove. The very important, but not
navigable Sanaga with the Mbam; the Njong the upper stretch of which is
navigable, with the Nkele; finally the smaller tributaries : Lokundje, Kribi and
Campo. Adamawa is crossed by the navigable Benue, the largest tributary of the
Niger, an important international traffic route to the sea (Niger Navigation Act
of 1885). The Dscha with Bumba in the southeast resp. the Ssanga connect the
area with the Congo navigation. The Schari feeding into Lake Chad and his
tributary, the Logone, are navigable over wide stretches.
Climate : The average annual temperature on the coast is c. 25 degrees
centigrade; February with 27 degrees on average is the warmest, July with an
average 23 degrees the coolest month. The rainy and dry seasons are different
from region to region and show not insignificant changes from year to year. Main
rainy season mostly May to October. The coastal region near Mt. Kamerun has one
of the world's highest amounts of annual precipitation. The climate is
unhealthy, particularly in the forested areas, in the higher elevated areas of
northern Kamerun considerably better.
Flora : Coast and Mt. Kamerun densely overgrown by the jungle. Mangrove,
palm trees, pandanas, capoc trees, breadfruit, mango. Grassland up to the swamp
vegetation at Lake Chad.
Fauna : Rich entomology. The rivers, especially the Sanaga, are full of
alligators. Rich avifauna (from the hummingbird to the hornbill). Among the
mammals many species of apes (chimpansee and gorilla), predators (leopards),
pachyderms and artiads.
Minerals : deposits of tin are known for years. Near Victoria
insignificant oil wells.
Trade and Transportation : Export products are palm kernels, palm oil,
caoutchouc, cocoa, ivory, timber etc., values of exports 1902 : 6,264,099 M.,
1903 : 7,564,512 M., 1904 : 8,020,731 M., 1905 : 9,315,187 M.
Imported are manufactured goods, food, alcoholic beverages, materials, money,
salt, lumber, wooden products, steel and steel products, glasswares, tobacco,
rice, flour, powder and arms etc., values of imports 1902 :
13,275,704 M., 1903: 9,637,939 M., 1904: 9,378,283 M., 1905: 13,467,113 M.
Transportation : Navigation : The Kamerun ports and roadsteads have been
frequented in 1905 by 391 steamers with a total tonnage of 962,000 tons, 229 of
which were German. Transfer ticket : Woermann Line Hamburg-Duala 1st class 600
Mark, 2nd class 450 Mark.
Railway Lines : short narrow gauge line Victoria-Soppo (43 km), line connecting
Duala with the Manenguba Mountains since 1906 under construction. Approved the
Line Duala-Edea-Widimenge, on the Njong river (293 km).
Post and Telegraph Services : by the end of 1906 : 28 post offices, 12 of which
offer telegraph services, 10 offer local telephone services. 537 km telegraph
lines overland, 337 km sea cable. 1905 : 392,200 letters (p.11), 21,685 postal
money orders amounting to a total sum of 2,623,000 Mark; 13,360 parcels, 79,343
newspaper issues, 14,116 telegrams, 157,646 telephone calls. Postal delivery :
three to four times a month. Time for delivery
Berlin-Duala 18 to 24 days. Telegram fee 5.30 Mark per word.
District offices are located in Victoria, Duala, Edea and Kribi, Yaunde,
Bamenda. Fontemdorf, Banko, Ebolowa and Lomie; other stations : Buea, Campo,
Jabassi, Johann-Albrechtshohe, Joko, Lolodorf, Ossidinge, Rio del Rey;
Residentures: Garua (with post in Dikoa) and Kusseri; seat of the government
Other places where Europeans reside : on the coast Bibundi, Debundja,
Bimbia, Bell, Joss, Akwa, Deidodorf, Malimba, Kl.-Batanga, Londji, Plantation,
Gr.-Batanga; on the Mungo: Mundame; on the Sanaga: Lobetal, Marienberg; on the
Njong: Widimenge, Dehane; on the Lokundje: Bipindi etc.
Schutztruppe : 1 commander, 39 officers, 11 medical doctors, 79 NCOs,
about 1150 coloureds. (as of April 1905/06). Police troops placed under German
military personnel are allocated to the individual stations.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1907, p.10f|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher