Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Togo
Border : The German-French treaty dated July 23rd 1897 determines the
colony's borders to the north and east; the border to the west was determined
via the exchange of notifications between Berlin and London in 1904. The total
area of the protectorate has been calculated at about 87,200 square km (larger
than Bavaria, more than double the size of the province Silesia)
Population : January 1st 1907 : 288 Europeans, of them 273 Germans and 40
adult women. The black population numbers about 1,000,000 (according to
The south is inhabited by Evhe-Negroes, to the north of them dwell related
smaller tribes, further north follow various peoples, partially independent
pagan tribes, partially such under muslim rulers. Of the peoples of the
hinterland we mention the Tim, the Kabure and the Dagomba.
Irrigation and Geomorphology : Strong surf along the 50 km long coast;
disembarkation and loading/offloading of cargo difficult. The peer completed
since 1905 at Lome has improved the situation; now passangers can disembark and
cargo can be offloaded without damage. The estuary of the Volta river, navigable
in it's lower stretch, is located on British territory. To the south of the 7th
degree of latitude, the lower stretch of the Mono forms the border to French
Dahomey. The Haho River, entirely located on German territory and emptying into
the Togo Lagoon, is navigable only for light shipping (canoes) and only in the
vicinity of it's mouth. Not navigable, but having more water than the Haho are
the Todschie and the Schio, which in (p.7) normal years have water 12 months per
year. The former is British in its lower stretch, the latter, like the Haho,
German in its entirety, it feeds into Togo Lagoon. Further the Oti, feeding into
the Volta not fat dromKete Kratji, is mentioned.
In the central area of the protectorate, a clearly structured, richly forested
mountain range stretches in S-N direction, the average height of which is 500 to
700 m, in the Dai region 800m, a number of peaks between 900 and 1000 m. The Agu
massive, in front of the mountain range aforementioned, with 1,030 m is the
highest feature in Togo.
Climate : In the coastal area the average annual temperature is 26
degrees Celsius, in the interior 23 degrees Celsius. At the coast two clearly
distinct rainy seasons, separated by dry seasons, from April to July and from
September to the end of November; the latter sometimes fails to appear (drought
years). The further into the interior, the closer do both rainy seasons approach
each other, the dry season thus shrinking. In Northern Togo the main dry season
is very distinct, less so in central and southern Togo.
In the north the fall rainy season brings more rain, in the south the other way
round. Precipitation along the coast 600-700 mm annually, in the Togo Mountains
from Amedschovhe to Kuma it reaches 1500 to 1600 mm, the maximum of the
protectorate. The Harmatan, a hot, dry wind from the land, blows in December and
the first half of January.
Flora : Along the coast palm trees, in the lagoon mangroves. The tree
characteristic for the entire coastal stretch is the cocos palm tree. In the
hinterland tree and grass savannahs, in southern and central Togo with rich
stands of trees, in the southern part of northern Togo with few trees, in the
northern part of the colony without trees. Forests only in southern and central
Togo. along the rivers and in the central Togo Mountains Range.
Economic plants (in cultivation or semi-cultivation) : oil palms, cocos palms,
caoutchouc trees, maize, peanuts, yams, cassada, cotton, cocoa, lumber,
schibutter tree, rice, beans, bananas, pineapple, mango, strophantus, capoc tree
etc. Exported caoutchouc is mainly extracted from lianas growing wild.
Fauna : The coastal area lacks large animals. Further in the hinterland
numerous monkey species, larger beasts of prey (lions, leopards, cheetahs,
hyaenas), hippopotami and a few elephants; wild boars. Rich, colourful avifauna.
Many species of snakes, among them the boa constrictor and the puff adder.
Alligators. Domesticated animals : sheep, goats, pigs (except in the north),
dogs; chicken, guinea-fowl, pigeons, ducks, rarely horses, frequent in northern
Togo; cattle frequent along the coast.
Minerals : near Banjeli and in Buem iron ore deposits, hitherto exploited
only by the indigenous. In the Ssola Mountains graphite deposits.
Trade. Export : main products : palm oil, palm kernels, maize,
caoutchouc, cotton; of minor importance : ivory, cocoa, peanuts, copra, skins.
Import : cotton products, spiritualia, iron, iron tools, tobacco, cigars,
gunpowder, materials. Value of ex- and imports see table on
page 4. - Number of enterprises and trading companies active in the
protectorate on January 1st 1907 : 23, with 28 branch offices and 161 sales
Traffic : shipping 1905 : 247 ships with 419,000 register tons, 1906 :
194 ships with 269,000 register tons. 1907 : 251 ships with 348,000 register
tons. Price for transfer passage : Woermann Line Hamburg-Lome I. 540 M., II. 390
coastal railway Lome-Anecho (45 km) opened on July 18th 1905, Lome-Agome-Palime,
(123 km), opened on January 27th 1907, Reichstag decision of June 16th 1904. The
interests for the costs of 7.8 million Mark are paid by the protectorate. The c.
180 km long line Lome-Atakpame has been approved. Postal and Telegraphic service
:at the end of 1907 15 offices, of them 13 with telegraphic service and 2 with
local telephone service; 407 km land telegraph cables. Traffic 1906 : 219,700
letters, 10,740 postal money orders over a total amount of 1,909,000 M., 6,490
parcels, 35,479 newspaper issues, 17,129 telegrams, 4,754 telephone calls.
Postal connections : four times a month, time for delivery Berlin-Lome 17 to 21
days. Telegram fee per word 5,30 M.
Administrative Districts : Seat of the governor (presently Count Zech auf
Neuhofen) is Lome. District offices : lome-Town and Lome-Land, Anecho, Misahöhe,
Atakpame, Kete-Kratschi, Sokode. Mangu-Jendi.
Police troops placed under German military personnel are stationed with the
district offices and stations (150 coloureds, the police detachments of the
district offices and stations not included).
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1908, p.6f|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher