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Imperialism | Colonial Policy

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Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Togo
Togo (p.6)

Border : The German-French treaty dated July 23rd 1897 determines the colony's borders to the north and east; the border to the west was determined via the exchange of notifications between Berlin and London in 1904. The total area of the protectorate has been calculated at about 87,200 square km (larger than Bavaria, more than double the size of the province Silesia)

Population : January 1st 1907 : 288 Europeans, of them 273 Germans and 40 adult women. The black population numbers about 1,000,000 (according to estimates).
The south is inhabited by Evhe-Negroes, to the north of them dwell related smaller tribes, further north follow various peoples, partially independent pagan tribes, partially such under muslim rulers. Of the peoples of the hinterland we mention the Tim, the Kabure and the Dagomba.

Irrigation and Geomorphology : Strong surf along the 50 km long coast; disembarkation and loading/offloading of cargo difficult. The peer completed since 1905 at Lome has improved the situation; now passangers can disembark and cargo can be offloaded without damage. The estuary of the Volta river, navigable in it's lower stretch, is located on British territory. To the south of the 7th degree of latitude, the lower stretch of the Mono forms the border to French Dahomey. The Haho River, entirely located on German territory and emptying into the Togo Lagoon, is navigable only for light shipping (canoes) and only in the vicinity of it's mouth. Not navigable, but having more water than the Haho are the Todschie and the Schio, which in (p.7) normal years have water 12 months per year. The former is British in its lower stretch, the latter, like the Haho, German in its entirety, it feeds into Togo Lagoon. Further the Oti, feeding into the Volta not fat dromKete Kratji, is mentioned.
In the central area of the protectorate, a clearly structured, richly forested mountain range stretches in S-N direction, the average height of which is 500 to 700 m, in the Dai region 800m, a number of peaks between 900 and 1000 m. The Agu massive, in front of the mountain range aforementioned, with 1,030 m is the highest feature in Togo.

Climate : In the coastal area the average annual temperature is 26 degrees Celsius, in the interior 23 degrees Celsius. At the coast two clearly distinct rainy seasons, separated by dry seasons, from April to July and from September to the end of November; the latter sometimes fails to appear (drought years). The further into the interior, the closer do both rainy seasons approach each other, the dry season thus shrinking. In Northern Togo the main dry season is very distinct, less so in central and southern Togo.
In the north the fall rainy season brings more rain, in the south the other way round. Precipitation along the coast 600-700 mm annually, in the Togo Mountains from Amedschovhe to Kuma it reaches 1500 to 1600 mm, the maximum of the protectorate. The Harmatan, a hot, dry wind from the land, blows in December and the first half of January.

Flora : Along the coast palm trees, in the lagoon mangroves. The tree characteristic for the entire coastal stretch is the cocos palm tree. In the hinterland tree and grass savannahs, in southern and central Togo with rich stands of trees, in the southern part of northern Togo with few trees, in the northern part of the colony without trees. Forests only in southern and central Togo. along the rivers and in the central Togo Mountains Range.
Economic plants (in cultivation or semi-cultivation) : oil palms, cocos palms, caoutchouc trees, maize, peanuts, yams, cassada, cotton, cocoa, lumber, schibutter tree, rice, beans, bananas, pineapple, mango, strophantus, capoc tree etc. Exported caoutchouc is mainly extracted from lianas growing wild.

Fauna : The coastal area lacks large animals. Further in the hinterland numerous monkey species, larger beasts of prey (lions, leopards, cheetahs, hyaenas), hippopotami and a few elephants; wild boars. Rich, colourful avifauna. Many species of snakes, among them the boa constrictor and the puff adder. Alligators. Domesticated animals : sheep, goats, pigs (except in the north), dogs; chicken, guinea-fowl, pigeons, ducks, rarely horses, frequent in northern Togo; cattle frequent along the coast.

Minerals : near Banjeli and in Buem iron ore deposits, hitherto exploited only by the indigenous. In the Ssola Mountains graphite deposits.

Trade. Export : main products : palm oil, palm kernels, maize, caoutchouc, cotton; of minor importance : ivory, cocoa, peanuts, copra, skins. Import : cotton products, spiritualia, iron, iron tools, tobacco, cigars, gunpowder, materials. Value of ex- and imports see table on page 4. - Number of enterprises and trading companies active in the protectorate on January 1st 1907 : 23, with 28 branch offices and 161 sales stores.

Traffic : shipping 1905 : 247 ships with 419,000 register tons, 1906 : 194 ships with 269,000 register tons. 1907 : 251 ships with 348,000 register tons. Price for transfer passage : Woermann Line Hamburg-Lome I. 540 M., II. 390 M.
coastal railway Lome-Anecho (45 km) opened on July 18th 1905, Lome-Agome-Palime, (123 km), opened on January 27th 1907, Reichstag decision of June 16th 1904. The interests for the costs of 7.8 million Mark are paid by the protectorate. The c. 180 km long line Lome-Atakpame has been approved. Postal and Telegraphic service :at the end of 1907 15 offices, of them 13 with telegraphic service and 2 with local telephone service; 407 km land telegraph cables. Traffic 1906 : 219,700 letters, 10,740 postal money orders over a total amount of 1,909,000 M., 6,490 parcels, 35,479 newspaper issues, 17,129 telegrams, 4,754 telephone calls. Postal connections : four times a month, time for delivery Berlin-Lome 17 to 21 days. Telegram fee per word 5,30 M.

Administrative Districts : Seat of the governor (presently Count Zech auf Neuhofen) is Lome. District offices : lome-Town and Lome-Land, Anecho, Misahöhe, Atakpame, Kete-Kratschi, Sokode. Mangu-Jendi.
Police troops placed under German military personnel are stationed with the district offices and stations (150 coloureds, the police detachments of the district offices and stations not included).



 


Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial Society). Berlin 1908, p.6f

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