Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Kamerun
Size : 495 600 square km (= Deutsches Reich). The border with the British
neighbouring colony has been finally determined in 1905, the one with French
Congo in 1906 to 1908.
Population : about 3500000 (?) inhabitants, among them 1903: 710, 1904 :
826, 1905 : 896, 1906 : 1010 Europeans, of whom 870 Germans and 123 women. Main
indigenous tribes in the hitherto explored areas : In the North and Northeast
the grassland tribes of Adamaua, under Fullah rule, of whom the Bata, Tikar,
Baia and Wute are the best known. Closer to the coast down to the southern
border follow the Bafut and Bali, Banjang, Bakundu and Ngolo, Bamboko, Bakwiri,
Duala, Batanga and Mabea and finally the Bule (Fang). The region between coastal
and grassland tribes, thus the middle valley of the Sanaga and Njong, is
populated by Bakoko tribes, on which, futher east, follow the Jaunde, Bane and
Jengone, which all are related with the Bule, which inhabit almost the entire
south. In the river areas of the Dscha, Bumba and Ssanga the Janguma, Njem,
Ndsimu, Bomome and Maka dwell. To be mentioned are further the Nguma on the
Lokundje, tribal fellows of the Njem and Maka.
Morphology : The highest mountain range on the Atlantic rim is the range
of Mt. Kamerun (4070 m.) which in northern direction blends into the Bakossi
Mountains. etc. In general, the protectorate's surface rises in terrasses in
earterly/northeasterly direction (Adamawa Mountains up to 3,000 m, Nguakeli in
the south c. 1500 m). An imaginary line drawn from Bali along the mouth of the
Mbam to the tributaries of the Ssanga roughly indicates the border of the
continuous coastal jungle.
Rivers : (from north to south) : The Rio-del-Rey area with several
tributaries, also the Kamerun river in which the Mungo, Dibambu and Wuri feed,
both are vast estuaries covered by mangrove. The very important, but not
navigable Sanaga with the Mbam; the Njong the upper stretch of which is
navigable, with the Nkele; finally the smaller tributaries : Lokundje, Kribi and
Campo. Adamawa is crossed by the navigable Benue, the largest tributary of the
Niger, an important international traffic route to the sea (Niger Navigation Act
of 1885). The Dscha with Bumba in the southeast resp. the Ssanga connect the
area with the Congo navigation. The Schari feeding into Lake Chad and his
tributary, the Logone, are navigable over wide stretches, and have been used by
the French to supply their posts in the area.
Climate : The average annual temperature on the coast is c. 25 degrees
centigrade; February with 27 degrees on average is the warmest, July with an
average 23 degrees the coolest month. The rainy and dry seasons are different
from region to region and show not insignificant changes from year to year. Main
rainy season mostly May to October. The coastal region near Mt. Kamerun has one
of the world's highest amounts of annual precipitation. The climate is
unhealthy, particularly in the forested areas, in the higher elevated areas of
northern Kamerun considerably better. (p.10)
Flora : Coast and Mt. Kamerun densely overgrown by the jungle. Mangrove,
palm trees, pandanas, capoc trees, breadfruit, mango. Grassland up to the swamp
vegetation at Lake Chad. Cultivated are cocoa, caoutchouk and oil palms.
Fauna : Rich entomology. The rivers, especially the Sanaga, are full of
alligators. Rich avifauna (from the hummingbird to the hornbill). Among the
mammals many species of apes (chimpansee and gorilla), predators (leopards),
pachyderms (elephants, also near the coast) and artiads.
Minerals : deposits of tin are known for years. Near Victoria
insignificant oil wells. In the district Ossidinge salt water sources, which
indicate salt- and potassium deposits.
Trade and Transportation : Export products are palm kernels, palm oil,
caoutchouc, cocoa, ivory, timber etc., Imported are manufactured goods, food,
alcoholic beverages, materials, money, salt, lumber, wooden products, steel and
steel products, glasswares, tobacco, rice, flour, powder and arms etc., Values
of ex- and imports see table on page 4.
Transportation : Navigation : The Kamerun ports and roadsteads have been
frequented in 1906 by 363 steamers with a total tonnage of 982,000 tons, 235 of
which were German. Transfer ticket : Woermann Line Hamburg-Duala 1st class 600
Mark, 2nd class 450 Mark.
Railway Lines : short narrow gauge line Victoria-Soppo (43 km), line connecting
Duala with the Manenguba Mountains (160 km) since 1906 under construction,
opened in 1910. Approved the Line Duala-Edea-Widimenge, on the Njong river (293
Post and Telegraph Services : by the end of 1907 : 30 post offices, 14 of which
offer telegraph services, 14 offer local telephone services. 830 km telegraph
lines overland, 337 km sea cable. 1906 : 539,900 letters, 24,537 postal money
orders amounting to a total sum of 3,327,000 Mark; 15,626 parcels, 76,929
newspaper issues, 25,541 telegrams, 164,940 telephone calls. Postal delivery :
three to four times a month. Time for delivery Berlin-Duala 19 to 24 days.
Telegram fee 5.30 Mark per word.
District offices are located in Victoria, Duala, Edea and Kribi, Jaunde
and Ossidinge; other administrative regions : Buea, Campo, Lolodorf, Jabassi,
Johann-Albrechtshöhe. Rio del Rey, Akono-Linga, Dschang, Bamenda, Banjo, Joko,
Ebolowa, Lomie, Dume-Station; residentures: Adamana with station in Garua and
German Lake Chad region with station in Kusseri; seat of the government is Buea.
Other places where Europeans reside : on the coast Bibundi, Debundja,
Bimbia, Bell, Joss, Akwa, Deidodorf, Malimba, Kl.-Batanga, Londji, Plantation,
Gr.-Batanga; on the Mungo: Mundame; on the Sanaga: Lobetal, Marienberg; on the
Njong: Widimenge, Dehane; on the Lokundje: Bipindi etc.
Schutztruppe : 1 commander, 39 officers, 11 medical doctors, 79 NCOs,
about 1300 coloureds. (as of April 1907). Police troops placed under German
military personnel are allocated to the individual stations.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1908, p.9f|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher