Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Retrospective on the development of the Protectorate of Kamerun in 1907
on the development of the Protectorate of Kamerun in 1907
(p.10) The total number of the protectorate's white population has
crossed the number 1,000 in 1908 and, with 1,010 as compared to 896 on January
1st 1906, has registered an increase of 13 %. The number of planters decreased
from 141 to 86 as compared to last year. The reason is one of the largest
plantation corporation having fired in tital more than 50 employees; the vacated
positions have been filled with blacks. Fortunately, the number of merchants has
risen from 283 to 347, their number has especially increased in the southern
district, because certain areas, which had seen an uprising, have calmed down
and thus have become accessible for trade.
A census of the indigenous population is not possible, as the natives in
many districts live scattered in the jungle and only rarely and reluctantly join
to live in larger settlements.
As far as the individual tribes have already been placed under strict
administration, the population's trust in the government is continuously
growing. This is indicated by the active participation in chiefs' assemblies
observed everywhere, and by the interest invested in these chiefs'
consultations. For instance, at a chiefs' assembly which was called for by the
government on the occasion of an inspection tour by the Schutztruppe commander
to Ebolova, 300 chiefs attended; it has to be stressed that for the chiefs
residing in the more distant stretches of the district, attendance caused
numerous difficulties. One of the more famous chiefs, Joja of Bamum, will
visit Germany in 1908. More and more, the offices are entrusted with
litigations. In this way the district officials are given the opportunity to
become more and more acquainted with the customs and legal traditions of the
indigenous, and in a gradual and careful approach to develop the indigenous
views pertaining to tradition and law in the direction of a modern, higher
civilization. In the Duala District, by the means of jurisdiction, it had been
accomplished to almost completely end the abuse of giving girls into marriage at
childhood age (p.11) among the Duala. By now it is generally recognized, that it
is an obligation of the tribes to keep the roads free and clean by clearing
them, and demands from the side of the administration do, in general, not meet
any resistance. Even newly subjected tribes show their willingness in regard to
It should not be concealed that large areas are still little accessed,
and that some warlike tribes attempt to evade the influence of the
administration. This is namely true for the southern part of Kamerun, and for
the complete pacification there are still steps to be undertaken, but also for
the northern and central part, some complications are still to be expected.
The labour and transportation question has to be described as very
serious. The upsurge of trade over the last years, the plantation's constant
demand for labour, the beginning of railway construction and the ever growing
utilization of the village communities for road construction and carrier
services has reached extraordinary proportions. According to the latest reports
of the district office, the southern district is almost completely
exhausted and has reached its capacity limits.
General conditions of production and labour have not seen any significant
change during the report year. Next to ivory, caoutchouc, palm oil and palm
kernels form the most important original products of the country, the only
plantation product of importance now is cocoa. The northern coastal district
exported chiefly this item, and cola nuts. In the central parts mostly palm oil
and palm kernels are grown, while in the south of the colony caoutchouc and
ivory take first place.
So, trade has increased in 1906 over that of the previous year, despite a
small decrease in the import figures. This, primarily, is explained by the
import of guns and powder being outlawed. In the export figures, caoutchouc
takes first place, amounting to more than double the sum for palm kernels and
more than four times the sum for cocoa. The export of ivory has declined in the
report year, which probably is linked to the import of guns and ammunition,
because in Kamerun it is an old custom to exchange elephant tusks only against
powder and guns. Unfortunately, for a number of years now, elephants large and
small have been shot without consideration, so that a decline in ivory exports
is to be expected soon, unless measures are taken to counter it. This
observation has also been made in neighbouring colonies. On April 1st 1907 a
regulation took force, according to which it is illegal to trade tusks below 5
Duala, in the first place, profits from an increase in Kamerun exports.
Partially this is explained with expanding export of palm kernels and palm oil,
and it will continue to increase when the Manenguba Railroad will connect it
with the best palm oil region of the entire colony. By the way, Germany is, as
always, the most important market for Kamerun's exports.
If the import figures for furniture and woodwork show a reduction by more
than half, this is explained by the activities of carpenter workshops run by
indigenous in Buea and Duala, which have taken on larger orders.
The protectorate's schools continue to progress in the old way. A school
has even been opened in Deutsch-Adamaua, in Garua. It had to deal with a number
of difficulties caused by the chiefs and men-in-power. The resident of Garua
then had selected children of ordinary Fullahs, even of slaves, for schooling :
45 boys between 6 and 10 years of age, after many had been sorted out as
unsuitable. As it seemed desirable to have the schoolboys under permanent
supervision, they have been given lodging in the school complex. They dwell in
one house and 8 huts around which kitchen- and storage rooms are grouped. The
edifices are made of clay and covered with grass. The construction of a massive
school building is planned for the future. Taught are writing, reading,
counting, object lessons, singing, physical education and gardening. The
prospects of the school can not be judged yet. Students have proved willingness
to learn. It has been observed that their pronunciation of German letters is of
more purity than that of the coastal negroes.
As in the previous years, Kamerun has seen an invigoration in all aspects of
life, as coincidingly witnessed by the annual reports of the Berlin and Hamburg
Chambers of Commerce.
Books and Maps of 1907 pertaining to Kamerun
Dominik, Hauptm. H., Vom Atlantik zum Tschadsee, Kriegs- und Forschungsfahrten
in Kamerun, (From the Atlantic to Lake Chad. War and Research Travels in
Kamerun) with maps, E. S. Mittler & Sohn, Berlin 1907. hardcover M.
Ziemann, Mar.-Oberstabsarzt Dr. H., Belehrungen für Europäer an Orten ohne
Arzt. Fur Kamerun verfasst. (Instructions for Europeans without a medical
doctor, edited for Kamerun) G. Heinicke, Berlin.
Ziemann, Grete, "Mola Koko!" Grüsse aus Kamerun. (Greetings from
Kamerun). Diary entries with maps W. Süsserott, Berlin 1907. M. 6,-.
(p. 12) Kamerun, Provisorische Ausgabe der Karte des südlichen Teiles von 1 :
500.000. (Provisorical edition of the map featuring the southern part) edited
and drawn by C. Jurisch and H. Wehlmann under the guidance of M. Moisel. 3.
Sect. Based on the astronomical determination of longitude and latitude,
undertaken in the process of the Süd-Kamerun-Grenzexpedition in 1901-1903 by
Capt. Engelhardt, Oberlt. Foerster u. Lt. Schulz, with the consultation of
hitherto unpublished surveys and of the entire older topographic material
hitherto published. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen) Berlin S.W.48. 1907. M. 20,-.
Further information on literature and maps on Togo are contained in
"Dietrich Reimer's Mitteilungen". - 4 numbers of 30 Pfg. each
annually. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen) Berlin SW. 48.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1908, p.10ff.|
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Dokument in deutscher