Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Retrospective on
the Development of the Protectorate Deutsch-Südwestafrika in 1907
on the Development of the Protectorate Deutsch-Südwestafrika in 1907
(p. 13) On April 1st 1907, by official proclamation, the war against
rebellious natives, which has ravaged the country for three years, and which
has caused severe damage, has been declared terminated. Small raids and
atrocities have been committed by the natives, even in 1908, because small bands
are still on the warpath, and some of them did not surrender yet. These
unimportant cattle thefts disregarded, the country is at peace and looks at a
The white civilian population, at the beginning of 1907, amounted to 7110
persons, about double the number of 1903, before the rebellion broke out. The
number of women has risen extraordinarily, while the number of men, compared to
1906, hardly increased. This is explained by a large number of transport drivers
and Schutztruppe employees, which found profitable employment during the
rebellion, and who have left the country, while settlers came in with their
Data concerning the number for natives naturally can not be given, but
they can possibly be established, if the decrees on the natives have been
executed which have been signed by governor von Lindequist just prior to his
resignation. They are intended to cause the natives to take on regular work, and
to place them under strict control.
These decrees on the natives determine, that every native is obliged to
always carry with him a passport, every native has to take employment with a
white man, and he is subjected to permanent control. These decrees have been
compiled, based on experience gained in the South African native question and
leaning on legislation of southern African neighbouring states, especially those
of British Rhodesia, and have been unanimously approved by the Gouvernementsrat,
both by non-official members and by the representatives of both confessions,
before they took force. These decrees shall stabilize the security of the white
(p.14) population and prevent any repetition of the unfortunate events and
sacrifices, which have occurred in the years 1904 to 1906. Further it has been
planned to preserve the natives, which correctly have been called the most
important asset of the colony. Their interests have been protected by the
appointment of a commissionary for native affairs. It is also in their interest
that the import of licquors for the purpose of being sold to natives has been
prohibited; purchase and consumption of alcohol is forbidden to coloureds in
We need the natives as workers, on the great farms, which, during the
report year, have again been taken under cultivation with the exception
of a few districts, as well as in the sales shops at larger places. The large
farmers have imported several thousand heads of cattle in 1907, mainly for the
purpose of breeding; the government has participated in this and supported them
in every possible way. Special attention has been spent since the previous year
on the so-called small settlements. Horticulture and agriculture shall be
supported, so that a part of the food demand will be produced in the country. In
the protectorate several areas, which are especially suited for that purpose,
have been declared as unsuited for the sale as large farms; they have been
parcelled into homesteads of a size of 12 to 15 ha. Such homesteads have been
created near Osona, Omaruru, Otjisasu, near Otjiwarongo, Waterberg, Katjapja.
For each of these settlements a larger pasture area is reserved, where the small
farmers may have their herds feed freely. The small farmers mainly focus on the
cultivation of potatoes, wine, maize, vegetables and tobacco. Chicken are also
Agriculture has especially flourished in the area near Swakopmund.
The settlers living along the Swakop River in Goanikontes and Heigamkhab have
concluded an agreement with a settler from Nonidas, according to which he offers
their products for sale in his market hall, an arrangement welcomed by the
housewives, and which brought good profit for salesman and producers, despite
the high prices. Unfortunately the locusts, which invaded from the northeast in
gigantic swarms, have annihilated plants and gardens, and thus paralyzed the
aforementioned enterprise in Swakopmund for some time to come.
Because of locust harvest shortfall, the concerned small farmers have suffered a
damage of 10,000 to 12,000 Mark in total.
With the suppression of the rebellion and the reduction of the size of the
Schutztruppe, the Southwest African economy naturally has changed. While
merchants have dominated in the previous years, now the farmer claims the first
place. In the past it has been feared, the alteration of the economy would lead
to a crisis. The fact that this crisis did not materialize may be taken as an
indication, that relations have already become solid and stabilized. On the
other hand, it should not be concealed that things are not yet normal and will
not normalize as long as an unproportionally large number of Schutztruppe men
will be kept in the country. Changes in the protectorate's economy have been
less visible in the interior, than in the port cities of Swakopmund and Lüderitzbucht.
The Southwest African mining sector demands special attention. An
enthusiastic and overly optimistic description should not be expected, which
often is given, much to the damage of our good colonial cause. It is noted from
official side, that good intention often outweighed prospecting experience.
Insignificant finds of ores often caused excessive hopes. In reality, in the
report year, despite active prospecting, no deposit of importance has been
What the country lacks is the serious professional prospector, i.e. the
man who, equipped with the ability to observe, with a certain amount of
experience in geology and prospecting, crosses the land year for year.
Independent, frugal, in his kind a fanatic of hope and consistent work. These
kind of men have always been pioneers of mining, in all kinds of countries. The
technician and the geologist, the special expeditions equipped according to the
latest state of knowledge, rarely have come up with the first discovery of
valuable deposits. The chance offered by the great discoverer called chance to
the prospector moving around all his life is considerably greater.
The indigenous, namely the bushman, has an excellent observation, and he does
not fail to note the slightest hint of, for instance, copper ores. Indeed, all
deposits presently known have been pointed out by natives, or have been long
known to them. Our hope has to be directed, in first place, on ore deposits of
such a kind which are not recognizable to the eye of a layman. Mostly tin and
tungsten, zinc ores, gold ores and coal. To discover these, only the expert and
the experienced prospector is qualified. (p.15)
As long as varios mining centers did not emerge in the country, which make
profit and naturally form the starting points of a serious mining industry,
progress in regard to the opening of the country for the mining industry will
depend, besides on chance, on the question if serious prospectors in
considerable numbers can be attracted by the country.
In regard to Southwest African mining enterprises, the Berlin Chamber of
Commerce reports the following : "In Tsumeb, besides preparatory and
installatory work, working of the important copper deposit has been begun. Until
the end of 1907, 15,000 t copper ore have been produced, of which, until mid
November 1907, 7,181 t have been shipped. Smelting of copper ore of lower copper
content has begun in the smelting works at Tsumeb; in December 1907 the
first shipment of 80 t of copper matte, produced at the smelting works (over 40
% copper) have been shipped. In the protectorate's central region, copper
deposits have again been examined in regard to profitable mining at Otjosangati
The entire geological structure of the various sections of the
protectorate will be critical for the development of sources of water, of this
important question in the steppe country of Southwest Africa. In the South,
where a landscape of table mountains dominates, water sources in
considerable amounts will only be opened up by drilling deep into the rock. Such
drilling works can be executed rather cheap and quick, because of the
the rock (limestone, dolomite, schist, sandstone). Things are different in the
protectorate's central region, in Damaraland, where rocks of high firmness
(gneiss, original schist) form obstacles; to make matters worse, they are
frequently folded and broken. Here, the question mainly can be to try and locate
water filling clefts.
The memorandum contains an interesting report on the opening of water sources,
here through drilling columns, there through Venetian fountains; in general, it
contains a long chapter on public works of the protectorate.
In South West Africa, railroads are most important. The line
Swakopmund-Windhuk had been operated by the military until April 1st 1907 and
had dealt satisfactorily with traffic, despite the fact that it had to suffer a
lot from material damage and similar problems. Rather difficult was also the
acquisition of water for the locomotives, and only during the report year have
water sources been opened by drilling along the line at Otjihawera, Okasise,
Waldau and Jakalswater. In Swakopmund the line also functions as a city line,
where a certain number of connecting rails have been installed for the
military and for larger businesses.
The Otavi Line, concluded in September 1906, has a length of 580 km. Its
waggons have transported the larger part of the copper ore produced at Tsumeb to
the port. As a consequence of the opening of the line, a number of locations
along the line flourished. Here are mentioned Usakos and further to the north
Osona, where a number of small settlements came into being.
Railway construction from Lüderitzbucht to Keetmanshoop or, better, the
continuation from Aus to Keetmanshoop has not been completed in 1907, as it also
had not been expected. Here, difficulties were much greater than with the
northern line of the protectorate. Not only the dunes segment between km 19 and
26, where cuts had to be made into the rock and dams had to be constructed. It
was especially troubling, that for a considerable time all water for the
workers had to be brought in by waggon from Lüderitzbucht, so that a liter of
potable water costed 22 Pfg. It is expected that the line will reach its
terminal point, for the time being, in August 1908, i.e. ahead of the time the
constructing firm has obliged itself to.
If we would have disposed over these railways two or three years ago, we could
have saved millions in costs in the rebellion, and the blood of some brave
German soldiers. Colonial railroads shall mainly serve economic purposes, and
this can be proven in case of the South West African lines. Along their lines
incoming German immigration can settle down and serve the country's economy, breed
cattle; the railway will provide good opportunities to market their produce. It
will reduce the long distances between the individual farms, will extend a tight
network of German settlements over a land heavily damaged by the three-year-long
rebellion, so that it will turn into a new Germany located overseas.
pertaining to Deutsch-Südwestafrika in 1907:
Anton, G. K., Prof. Dr. Die Siedlungsgesellschaft für Deutsch-Südwestafrika.
(The settlement corporation for Deutsch-Südwestafrika) lecture held at the
Staatswissenschaftl. Gesellschaft at Jena on 21. Nov. 1907. 61 p. with a
lithographic map. Karte. 1908. F. Fischer, Jena. 1,20 M.
Deutsch-Südwestafrika. Amtl. Ratgeber für Auswanderer m. K. (Deutsch-Südwestafrika,
Official Guide for Emigrants, with map) Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen), Berlin
S.W. 48, 1907. 1 M.
Falkenhausen, H. von. Ansiedler-Schicksale. 11 Jahre in Deutsch-Südwestafrika
1893-1904. 1907. (Settler-fates. 11 years in Deutsch-Südwestafrika, 1893-1904)
5th ed. hardcover Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen) Berlin S.W.48. 3 M. (p. 16)
Fuchs, Dr. jur. V. Ein Siedelungsvorschlag für D.-Südwestafrika. (A proposal
concerning the settlement of D.-Südwestafrika) D. Reimer, Berlin 1907. 2 Mk.
Hermann, E. Viehzucht und Bodenkultur in Südwestafrika, zugleich Ratgeber für
Auswanderer. (Cattle Breeding and Soil Cultivation in Südwestafrika,
simultaneously a Guide for Emigrants) 3rd ed., compiled by H. Haase. D.
Kol.-Verl., Berlin 1907. 3 M.
Forces at War in South West Africa. Auf Grund amtl. Materials bearb. v. d.
Kriegsgeschichtl. Abt. I des Gr. Generalstabes. Heft V. Der Hottentottenrkieg.
Heft VI (Schluss) Der Hottentottenkrieg: Die Unterwerfung des Cornelius und der
Bondelzwarts m. Skn. E. S. Mittler & Sohn, Berlin 1907. 0,40 und 0,45 M.
König, Ing. Fr. Die Wasserversorgung in Deutsch-Südwestafrika. Ein Beitrag zu
ihrer Lösung auf Grund geologischer, klimatischer und hydrologischer Studien.
(Water supply in Deutsch-Südwestafrika. A contribution to its solution based on
geological, climatic and hydrological studies) O. Wigand, Leipzig 1907.
Macco, A., Bergassessor und Kgl.-Berg.-Insp. Die Aussichten des Bergbaues in
Deutsch-Südwestafrika m. K. (The prospects of mining in Deutsch-Südwestafrika,
with map) D. Reimer, Berlin 1907. 2 M.
Ortenberg, Kais. Oberarzt a. D. Dr. H. v. Aus dem Tagebuch eines Arztes.
Feldzugskizzen aus Südwestafrika. (From the diary of a medical doctor. Campaign
sketches from Südwestafrika) C. A. Schwetschke & Sohn, Berlin
1907. 3 M.
Passarge, Prof. Dr. S. Die Buschmanner der Kalahari m. K. (The Bushmen of the
Kalahari, with map) Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen), Berlin S.W. 48, 1907. 3 M.,
hardcover 4 M.
Rohrbach, Dr. P. Deutsche Kolonialwirtschaft. Bd. I. Deutsch-Südwestafrika, m.
K. (German Colonial Economy. Vol.1, Deutsch-Südwestafrika) Buchverl. d. Hilfe,
Berlin-Schoneberg. 10 M.
Schlettwein, C. Der Farmer in Deutsch-Südwestafrika. Eine Darstellung samtl. f.
d. afrikan. Farmer in Betracht kommenden Erwerbszweige und ein Leitfaden für
Anfänger. (The Farmer in Deutsch-Südwestafrika. A description of all economic
branches of concern to the South West African farmer and hints for the beginner)
Hinstorffsche Verl.-Buchh., Wismar 1907. 6 M.
Schultze, Prof. Dr. L. Aus Namaland und Kalahari. Bericht an die Kgl. Preuss.
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin über eine Forschungsreise im Westl. u.
Zentralen Südafrika, ausgeführt in den Jahren 1903-1905, m. K. (From Namaland
and the Kalahari. Report to the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin on
a research expedition, undertaken in the years 1903-1905, with map) G. Fischer,
Jena 1907. 60 M.
South Africa, Map of German. 1 : 3.000.000. 57x61 cm. 1908. (new British general
staff map). Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen). Berlin S.W.48. 2,50 M. in pocket
size 3,50 M.
Further information on literature and maps on Togo are contained in
"Dietrich Reimer's Mitteilungen". - 4 numbers of 30 Pfg. each
annually. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen) Berlin SW. 48.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1908, p.13ff.|
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Dokument in deutscher