Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Deutsch-Ostafrika
Size : including lake surface 995,000 square km (= twice the Reich).
Population : Europeans 1904 : 1437, of them Germans 1102. 1905 : 1873, of
them 1324 Germans and 316 adult women. 1906: 2465, of them 1499 Germans and 401
adult women. 1907: 2629 whites, of them 1656 Germans and 437 adult women. 1908:
2845 whites, of them 2014 Germans and 507 adult women. Since 1904 the
immigration of Boers and European settlers (Swabians from Russia, Reich Germans,
Greeks, Italians etc.) into the Kilimanjaro region (Moschi). The black
population at least 7 million, perhaps up to 10 million. The most important
element are Bantu negroes. The Bantu in the southern part of the colony are
related to the Zulu. In the steppes of the north, until into the central region,
the Massai which penetrated into the area from the north, live in statelets
(Hamites, speaking languages of the Nilotic peoples). In the Northwest, between
Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, as the ruling class among the Bantu, the
Hamitic Wahuma or Watussi. To the Zulus of the south belong the Wahehe, living
under tribal princes (in the Rufiji valley) and the Mafiti; both tribes migrated
into the area coming from the south.
Usumbura, seen from Lake Tanganyika
The Suaheli are an ethnic mix of Arabs and indigenous; their idiom is the East
African lingua franca. Besides the indigenous, along the coast reside Arabs
(from Muscat and Shihiri), Baluchis, Indians, Parsees, Goanese, Syrians,
Morphology : Deutsch-Ostafrika is part of the plateau stretching from
Abyssinia to Cape Town, rising from the Indian Ocean westward toward the
interior. It is structured by several rifts extending in south-northerly
direction and reaches hights in the protectorate of 1,000 - 1,500 m and more.
At the northern border the double-peaked Kilimanjaro (western peak : Kibo, 6,010
m, eastern peak : Mawensi, 5,355 m), covers an area of 3,770 square km or 67
German square miles. To the left of the Kilimanjaro the Pangani, the Pare
Mountains, steeply declining toward the west; to the east the Usambara
Mountains. A continuation of the Pare Mountasins, on the right bank of the
Pangani, the Useguha Terrasse. The Nguru Mountains form the beginning of the rim
mountain range which continues, in the shape of a bow, through Usagara and Uhehe
and extends to the Nyassa. On the border between Ussagara and Uhehe the Ruhebo
Mountains. In the Nyassa Mountains peaks of 3,000 m, on the northeastern corner
of Lake Nyassa the Livingstone Mountains. In the protectorate's north west the
mountains of Urundi and Ruanda. In the rift to the north of Lake Kiwu the still
active Kirunga Volcanoes.
Hydrology : the plateau in general is mostly dry. Rivers feeding into the
Indian Ocean are, from north to south : the Umba, the Pangani (source at the
Kilimanjaro), the Wami and Kingani (estuary opposite Zanzibar), the Rufiji (with
the Kilombero or Ulanga and Ruaha; near the Rufiji estuary the island of Mafia);
the Mbemkuru, the Lukuledi and the Rowuma (border river in the south). All
rivers are only partially navigable. Recently attempts on the
Ulanga and Rufiji.
Into Lake Tanganyika feed the Mlagarassi, into Lake Victoria-Njansa the Kagera,
the southernmost source of the Nile, out of the Nyassa flows in southern
direction toward the Zambezi the Shire.
The three sweetwater lakes Lake Victoria (1,135 m above sea level, 66,000 square
km = size of the Kingdom of Bavaria), Lake Tanganyika (780 m above sea level,
35,000 square km, size of East Prussia) and Lake Nyasa (478 m above sea level,
27,000 square km = province West Prussia) partially belong to the German
protectorate. To the west of the Kilimanjaro are located Lake Guassonjiro, Lake
Ejassi and Lake Manjara. Lake Rukwa, located norteast of Lake Nyasa, has an
altitude of 800 m and empties into a basin without outflow.
Climate : Deutsch-Ostafrika entirely belongs to the hot climactic zone
from the 1st to the 12th degree of southern latitude. From May to September the
Southwest Passate wind is blowing, from December to March the Northeast Passate.
The winds carry moisture onto the land and determine the rainy and dry seasons.
Main meteorological station Daressalam, in addition 54 pluviometric stations.
Along the coast the short rainy season is expected in November, the long one in
March and April. The coolest month is July, with nightly temperatures of 16
degrees Celsius, over day up to 35 degrees and more. Europeans can dwell in the
highlands without damaging their health.
Flora : Along the coast, especially in estuaries, swamp vegetation;
mangrove zone. Following Pori, bush steppe with frequent tree growth (Acacias,
Baobab, euphorbias etc.). In the mountains extensive forests with useful timber,
f.i. the Schume forest in Wilhelmstal District. Cultivated plants : cotton,
sisal, coffee, caoutchouc, cocoa palm, rice, bananas, pineapple, tanner's
acacia, peanuts, sesame, sorghum, maize.
Fauna : tropical fauna with apes, large predator cats, pachyderms,
crocodiles. The protectorate's fauna is more closely related to that of southern
Africa than to that of western Africa. Both faunas meet in the northwestern
corner of the protectorate. A distinct, peculiar character has the fauna of the
large lakes in the interior. Hunting products play a role in exports; animal
breeding produces mainly hides and fur. In addition, the negro collects wax from
hives of wild bees; the breeding of domestic animals mainly produces furs and
Minerals : In Ussongo and Ikome profitable gold deposits, at the Mlagarassi
salt deposits, along the Njassa perhaps profitable coal deposits. At several
places garnet and mica.
Trade : exported are caoutchouc, ivory, sesame, copal, coconuts, mats,
cotton, hemp, indigenous lumber, skins and furs, beeswax, horns, copra, coffee.
Imported are cotton products, rice, flour, iron and ironwares, wine, beer,
butter, sugar, meat and various food, petrol, cement, vegetables and fruit,
tobacco, spirituals etc. For values of exports and imports see table
on page 5-8.
Transportation : Railways : The Usambara Line is regularly served since
1905 on the stretch Tanga-Mombo over 129 km and enjoys rising popularity, also
with the negroes. For the time being it shall be extended until the Pangani
River (45 km). - Construction of the Line Daressalam-Mrogoro (225 km), approved
by the Reichstag in 1904, has reached Mrogoro in October 1907. Extension for
further 700 km until Tabora is approved and has been begun.
Navigation : The eleven ports of the colony have been visited in 1907 by 475
steamers with about 1,400,000 tons, the coastal traffic conducted by government
vessels disregarded. In addition many sailing boats (dhows, p.24) participate in
the trade. On Lake Victoria the German pinasse "Ukerewe" is sailing,
along with many British steamers and many dhows, both British and German. On
Lake Tanganyika the "Hedwig von Wissmann", on Lake Nyassa the
"Hermann von Wissmann". Transit fee : Deutsche Ostafrikalinie, Line
Genoa-Daressalam 1st class 675 Mark, 2nd class 350 Mark, main line
Naples-Daressalam 1st class 750 Mark, 2nd class 525 Mark, 3rd class 300 Mark.
Postal and Telegraph Service : by the end of 1907 35 offices, among them 25 with
telegram service and 5 with local telephone service; 2,418 km overland telegraph
cables ans 136 km sea cables. 1907 : 2,800,000 letters, 74,000 postal money
orders, total amount 24,000,000 Mark; 22,000 parcels, 224,000 newspaper issues,
180,000 telegrams, 85,000 telephone calls. Postal connection : 4-5 times a
month, time of delivery Berlin-Daressalam 19 to 23 days, telegram fee per word
to Bismarckburg and Udjidji 3.15 Mark, to the other offices 2.75 Mark.
Administration : Seat of the governor at Daressalam (presently Freiherr
von Rechenberg). The protectorate is structured in now 21 districts. 16 of them
are under civilian administration : Wilhelmstal, Tanga, Pangani, Bagamojo,
Daressalam, Rufiji, Kilwa, Lindi, Morogoro, Langenburg, Ssongea, Moschi, Mpapua,
Muansa, Tabora, 2 under military administration : Iringa, Mahenge and 3 under
residentures : Bukoba, Ruanda, Urundi.
Farm on the Eastern Slope of Mt. Meru
1907: 2760 men, including the Police Askari transferred by the government,
distributed over the following locations : Aruscha, Iraku, Iringa, Ubena, Lindi,
Sassawara, Kilimatinde, Mkalama, Kwa Mtoro, Daressalam, Udjidji, Bismarckburg,
Rutschugi, Bukoba, Kifumbiro, Ussuvi, Mbejera (Kihawa), Usambura, Tschiwitoke,
Ischangi, Kissenji, Tabora, Mahenge, Mponda, Kiberege, Kondoa-Irangi, Livale,
Muansa, Ikoma; 15 companies and one machine gun detachment.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Yearbook and Remarks by
Hubert Henoch. Berlin 1909, p.22f|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher