Primary Sources
Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Kiautschou
Kiautschou. (p.33)

History : The territory of the Kiautschou area, located in the Chinese province of Schantung, was occupied by the landing detachment of the cruiser squadron under the command of Vice Admiral von Diederichs on November 14th 1897.
After a treaty with the Chinese government, signed March 6th 1898, ceded all claims the Chinese government had within the area for a lease over 99 years, it had been proclaimed, by Imperial edict, a German protectorate, on April 27th 1898.
The administration of the Kiautschou Protectorate is placed under the Reichs-Marine-Amt, while the other colonies are subordinated to the Reichskolonialamt.

Size : The protectorate includes the entire water body of Kiautschou Bay up to the high water mark, furthermore the northern and southern promontory at it's inlet up to suitable ridges = 46,6 respectively 461,5 square km, as well as the islands located within the bay and in the sea off the bay = 43,6 square km. The total land area amounts to 551,7 square km (roughyly the size of Hamburg). In addition a zone has been established within which the Chinese government cannot implement any reform without German approval; the border of this line is 50 km distant from the protectorate; this zone covers roughly 1/2 the Kingdom of Saxony.

Population : according to a census undertaken in the city area of Tsingtau in 1907 31,500 Chinese and (except military personnel) 1484 Europeans, compared to 1225 the previous year. To these, 171 Japanese have to be added (36 less than in the previous year).
The population of the rural district has been estimated at 100,000, more recent estimates give 90,000; the population of the 50 km zone is unknown.

Morphology and Hydrology : On the northern promontory the Lau-Schan, up to 1,130 m high. Almost the entire peninsula of Schantung is covered by a 600 km long mountain range; it is separated from China's other mountain chains by a large plain, and by another plain connecting Kiautschou Bay with the Gulf of Chili it is separated in two. The protectorate lacks navigable rivers. The hinterland borders on the Hwangho, which flows down steeply.

Climate : highest temperature 33 degrees, lowest minus 11 degrees. Average annual precipitation over 500 mm.

Flora : Cultivated plants : grain, beans, potatos, tobacco, fruit trees. Forests, because of Chinese maladministration, destroyed. The Germans reforest the area near Tsingtau; the Chinese learn reforestation.

Fauna : The Kiautschou area has few animals. In spring and autumn many migratory waterfowl pass by. Attempts to introduce European domesticated animals failed so far.

Minerals : The exploitation of the coal field at Wei-hsien was begun on October 1st 1902. The first coal train arrived at Tsingtau on October 30th 1902. Since, exploitation proceeds through the pit Fang-tse. For the preocessing of the coal, a mechanical separation apparatus has been established. Next to a drilling hole drilled about 70 m to the north of Fang-tse, drilling of a second pit (Minna-pit) for voluminous hauling of coal has begun. To complete the Fang tse mines, another main hauling pit (Annie-pit) is drilled in the vicinity of the railway station Fang tse, since June 1904. In the Po-schan coal field, works on drilling a pit (Tsetschnan-pit) have begun in the summer. The coal is partially suited for steamers.

Trade and Transportation : a large port with piers. Swimming dock (16,000 tons capacity) and shipyards largely completed. The Schantung Railway, starting in Tsingtau, leads to the Schantung Mining Company's coal fields near Wei-hsien and Po-schan and further to Tsinan-fu (435 km). The first train arrived at Tsinan=fu on February 23rd 1904; the entire line including branch line in the Po-schan valley began regular operation on June 1st 1904. Under construction the line Tientsin-Pou-kou, touching Tsi-nan-fu. The hinterland provides, for export to Europe, especially straw products, peanut oil, brushes and silk pongees. The trade statistics figures largely refer to transfer goods. Over four fifth of the imports are transported into the interior, by the railway. By agreement with the chinese government, the free port area, which hitherto covered the entire colony, has been limited, as of January 1st 1906, to the port itself and adjacent terrain. To facilitate trade, the entire protectorate has been incorporated into Chinese customs territory.
(p.34) Total export from October 1st 1903 to October 1st 1904 about 14.7 million Mark, 1904/05 : c. 20 million Mark, 1905/06 : c. 23.5 million M., 1906/07 : over 34 million M., 1907/08 : 32.5 million M. Total import of goods not of Chinese origin (without railroad and mine construction material) 1903/04 about 24 million Mark, 1904/05 : c. 37 million M., 1905/06 : over 50 million M., 1906/07 : over 61.5 million M., 1907/08 : 38 million M. Total import of goods not of Chinese origin 1904/05 : more than 12 million M., 1905/06 : over 15 million, 1906/07 : almost 21 million M., 1907/08 : 17.5 million M. Cotton products take the first place, followed by petrol, anilin dyes, paper, sugar, matches etc.
Navigation : in 1906/07 498 steamers with 547,000 reg.tons docked in Tsingtau. 1907/08 432 with 520,000 reg.tons. Transit passage : Norddeutscher Lloyd, Genova of Naples-Tsingtau I. 1300 M., II. 910 M., III. 520 M.
Post and Telegraphy : At the end of 1907 7 post offices, of them 1 with telegraph and local telephone service. 1907/08 : 3,166,000 letters, 13,260 postal money orders over a total amount of 610,000 M., 15,450 parcels, 192,000 newspaper issues, 51,750 telegrams, 443,000 telephone calls. Delivery : once every five days, time of delivery 33 to 39 days. Telegram fee 4.55 M per word.

Administration : Seat of the Governor is Tsingtau (presently Counter-Admiral Truppel). District office Litsun.

Garrison : 63 officers and medical doctors, 1816 NCOs and troops, 62 Chinese (police) troops.

Chinese field labour in the hinterland of the Kiautschou area

Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Yearbook and Remarks by Hubert Henoch. Berlin 1909, p.31f

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