Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1910, Togo
Togo (p. 9)|
Borders: The German-French treaty dated July 23rd 1897 determines the
colony's borders to the north and east (only minor ambiguities); the border
to the west was determined via the exchange of notifications between Berlin
and London in 1904. The total area of the protectorate has been calculated
at about 87,200 square km (larger than Bavaria, more than double the size of
the province Silesia) (p.10)
Population: January 1st 1909: 330 Europeans, of them 300 Germans and 51
adult women. The black population numbers c. 1,000,000 (mostly estimates,
few counts). It contributed 90,000 Mark in taxes in 1908. A government
school exists in Lome, an agricultural school in Nuatja.
The south is inhabited by Ewe-Negroes, among them splinters of other tribes,
in part related with those of the Gold Coast, mainly in the mountains. There
languages, by and by, are replaced by Ewe. To the north of them dwell
related smaller tribes of unknown origin. Further north follow the Tim,
Kabure and related tribes, and toward the west the Dagomba- Gurma-, and
Irrigation and Geomorphology: Strong surf along the 52 km long coast;
disembarkation and loading/offloading of cargo difficult. The peer completed
in 1905 at Lome has improved the situation; now passangers can disembark and
cargo can be offloaded without damage.
The estuary of the Volta river, navigable in it's lower stretch, is located
on British territory. To the south of the 7th degree of latitude, the lower
stretch of the Monu forms the border to French Dahomey. The estuary is
located on French territory. The Haho River, entirely located on German
territory and emptying into the Togo Lagoon, is navigable only for light
shipping (canoes) and only in the vicinity of it's mouth.
Not navigable, but richer in water than the Haho are the Todschie and the
Schio, which, in normal years, have water year round. However, the first is
British in its lower stretch, the former, like the Haho, German in its
entirety and feeds into Togo Lagoon. The Oti, feeding into the Volta not far
from Kete-Kratji also is to be mentioned.
In the central area of the protectorate, a clearly structured, richly
forested mountain range stretches in S-N direction, the average altitude of
which is 600 to 700 m, in the (p.11) Dai region 800 m, a number of peaks 900
to 1000 m. With 1020 m, the Agu Massive situated in front of it forms the
highest point of Togo.
Climate: In the coastal area the average annual temperature is 26 degrees
Celsius, in the interior 23 degrees Celsius. At the coast two clearly
distinct rainy seasons, separated by dry seasons, from April to July and
from September to November; the latter sometimes fails to appear (drought
years). The further one comes into the interior, the clloser the two rainy
seasons approach each other, the dry season in-between thus
shrinking. In the north the main dry season is clearly marked, less so in
central and southern Togo. In the north the fall rainy season brings more
rain, in the south the other way round. Precipitation along the coast
600-700 mm annually, in the interior 1200 to 1300 mm. In the Togo Mountains
between Amedschovhe and Kuma the annual precipitation reaches 1500 to 1600
mm, the maximum of the protectorate. The Harmatan, a hot, dry, dust carrying
wind from the land, blows in December and January.
Flora: along the coast palms, along the lagoon Mangrove forests. In the
coastal stretch the characteristic tree is the cocos palm tree. In the
hinterland tree and grass savannahs, in southern and middle Togo with rich,
in sothern North Togo with little, in the northern part of the colony
without tree growth.
Forests only in middle and southern Togo, along the rivers and in the
central Togo mountains. Economic plants (in cultivation or semi-cultivation)
: oil palms, cocos palms, cautchouk trees, maize, peanuts, yams, cassada,
cotton, cocoa, timber, schibutter tree, rice, beans, bananas, pineapple,
mango, strophanthus, capoc tree etc. The exported cautchouk (nat'l rubber)
was mainly tapped from lianas growing wild.
Fauna: in the coastal area there are few large animals. In the interior
there are many species of monkeys, larger predators (lions, leopards,
cheetahs, hyenas), hippopotami, a few elephants, wild boars. A rich
avifauna, many species of snakes, among them the giant boa and puff adder.
Alligators. Domesticated animals : sheep, goats, pigs (except in the north),
dogs; chicken, guinea fowl, pigeons, ducks, rarely horses (frequent in the
cattle less frequent at the coast than in the north (in Mangu about 50,000,
in Sokode 4,000 to 6,000).
Minerals: Near Banjeli and in Buem deposits of iron ore, hitherto only
exploited by the indigenous. In the Ssola Mountains graphite deposits.
Alluvial gold in the Monu River.
Trade: Export : main products : palm oil, palm kernels, maize, caoutchouc,
cotton; of minor importance : ivory, cocoa, peanuts, copra, live animals and
skins. - Import : cotton products, spiritualia, iron, iron tools, wood,
wooden tools, tobacco, cigars, gunpowder, materials. Values of imports and
exports see table on pp.5-6. Number of the merchant houses and companies
active in the protectotrate on January 1st 1909 : 27.
Traffic: shipping 1905 : 247 ships with 419,000 register tons, 1906 : 194
ships with 269,000 reg.-tons, 1907 : 251 ships with 348,000 reg.tons. 1908:
260 ships with 471.000 reg.-tons. Passage fee : Woermann Line Hamburg-Lome
I. 540 M., II. 390 M.
Railways : coastal railway Lome-Anecho (45 km) opened on July 18th 1905,
Lome-Agome-Palime (123 km), opened January 27th 1907, approved (p.12) by
Reichstag on June 16th 1904. The interests of the costs of 7.8 million Mark
are paid by the protectorate. Under construction the line Lome-Atakpame, c.
180 km long, approved in May 1908. The Traffic Installation (Pier, coastal
railway, railway line Lome-Palime) brought in a revenue from April 1907 to
March 1908 of 742,000 M., from April 1908 to March 1909 863,000 M.
Postal and Telegraphic Service : at the end of 1908 : 16 post offices, all
of them with telegraphic and 3 with local telephone service; 630 km land
telegraph lines. Traffic 1908 : 344,700 letters, 15,992 postal money orders
over a total amount of 1,511,080 M.,11,630 parcels, 78.398 newspaper issues,
24,906 telegrams and 24.895 telephone calls. Postal connection : four times
a month, delibery Berlin-Lome 17-21 days. Telegram fee per word 5.30 M.
Administrative Districts: Seat of the governor (presently Count Zech auf
Neuhofen) is Lome. District offoces : Lome-Town and Lome-Land, Anecho,
Misahohe, Atakpame, Kete-Kratschi, Sokode-Bassari. Mangu-Jendi. (p.12)
Police troops placed under German military personnel are stationed with the
district offices Lome and Anecho (150 coloureds, without the police
departments of the District offices and Stations).
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Yearbook and Remarks by
Hubert Henoch. Berlin 1910, pp.9|
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Dokument in deutscher