Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1910, Kamerun
Size : 495 600 square km (= Deutsches Reich without Province Schlesien). The
border with the British neighbouring colony has not yet been finally
determined, the one with French Congo in 1906 to 1908.
Agreements with Spain have also not yet been concluded.
Population : about 3500000 (?) inhabitants, among them 1903: 710, 1904 :
826, 1905 : 896, 1906 : 1010 , 1907 : 1128, 1980 : 1127 Europeans, of whom
986 Germans and 140 women. So far, only in a few districts a census has been
undertaken, mainly for the purpose of raising tax revenue. Taxes collected
in 1908 : 642,000 Mark. Main indigenous tribes in the hitherto explored
areas : In the North and Northeast the grassland tribes of Adamaua, under
Fullah rule, of whom the Bata, Tikar, Beia and Wute are the best known.
Closer to the coast down to the southern border follow the Bafut and Bali,
Banjang, Bakundu and Ngolo, Bamboko, Bakwiri, Duala, Batanga and Mabea and
finally the Bule (Fang). The region between coastal and grassland tribes,
thus the middle valley of the Sanaga and Njong, is populated by Bakoko
tribes, on which, futher east, follow the Jaunde, Bane and Jengone, which
all are related with the Bule, which inhabit almost the entire south. In the
river areas of the Dscha, Bumba and Ssanga the Janguma, Njem, Ndsimu, Bomome
and Maka dwell. To be mentioned are further the Nguma on the Lokundje,
tribal fellows of the Njem and Maka. The following tribes and districts have
been counted : Duala 75.000, Victoria 11.000, Buea 10.000, Ossidinge 24.000,
Kribi 38.000 men; estimated : Jaunde 57.000, Kampo 7.000, Rio-del-Rey
14.000, Johann Albrechtshohe 60.000, Joko 10.000 men capable of bearing
arms, Banjo 130.000, Ebolowa 180.000, Lomie 60.000, Jabassi 18.000, Dume
30.000, Dschang 117.000, Akonolinga 9,000 heads.
Morphology : The highest mountain range on the Atlantic rim is the range of
Mt. Kamerun (4070 m.) which in northern direction blends into the Bakossi
Mountains. etc. In general, the protectorate's surface rises in terrasses in
earterly/northeasterly direction (Adamawa Mountains up to 3,000 m, Nguakeli
in the south c. 1500 m). An imaginary line drawn from Bali along the mouth
of the Mbam to the tributaries of the Ssanga roughly indicates the border of
the continuous coastal jungle.
Rivers : (from north to south) : The Rio-del-Rey area with several
tributaries, also the Kamerun river in which the Mungo, Dibambu and Wuri
feed, both are vast estuaries covered by mangrove. The very important, but
not navigable Sanaga with the Mbam; the Njong the upper stretch of which is
navigable according to newer research (between Widimenge and Abong-Mbang),
with the Nkele; finally the smaller tributaries : Lokundje, Kribi and Kampo.
Adamaua is crossed by the navigable Benue, the largest tributary of the
Niger, an international traffic route to the sea (Niger Navigation Act of
1885). The Dscha with Bumba (p.14) in the southeast resp. the Ssanga connect
the area with the Congo navigation. The Schari feeding into Lake Chad and
his tributary, the Logone, are navigable over wide stretches, and have been
used by the French to supply their posts in the area.
Climate : The average annual temperature on the coast is c. 25 degrees
centigrade; February with 27 degrees on average is the warmest, July with an
average 23 degrees the coolest month. The rainy and dry seasons are
different from region to region and show not insignificant changes from year
to year. Main rainy season mostly May to October. 1906-1907 3800 mm
precipitation within 12 months in Duala. The coastal region near Mt. Kamerun
has one of the world's highest amounts of annual precipitation. The climate
is unhealthy, particularly in the forested areas, in the higher elevated
areas of northern Kamerun considerably better. The report year was unusually
Flora : Coast and Mt. Kamerun densely overgrown by the jungle. Mostly
valuable lumber. Further : Mangrove, palm trees, pandanas, capoc trees,
breadfruit, mango. Grassland up to the swamp vegetation at Lake Chad.
Cultivated are cocoa, caoutchouk and oil palms.
Fauna : Rich entomology. The rivers, especially the Sanaga, are full of
alligators. Rich avifauna (from the hummingbird to the hornbill). Among the
mammals many species of apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), predators, pachyderms
(elephants near the coast) and artiads.
Minerals : deposits of tin are known for years. Near Victoria insignificant
oil wells. In the district Ossidinge salt water sources, which indicate
salt- and potassium deposits, and possibly coal fields.
Transportation : Navigation : The Kamerun ports and roadsteads have been
frequented in 1907 by 474 steamers with a total tonnage of 1,270,000 tons,
1908 : 421 with 1.316.000 tons. 226 of which were German. Transfer ticket :
Woermann Line Hamburg-Duala 1st class 600 Mark, 2nd class 450 Mark.
Railway Lines : short narrow gauge line (private property) Victoria-Sopo (43
km), line connecting Duala with the Manenguba Mountains since 1906 under
construction, opening of a partial stretch in 1909. Approved the Line
Duala-Edea-Widimenge (293 km).
Post and Telegraph Services : by the end of 1908 : 32 post offices, 16 of
which offer telegraph services, 15 offer local telephone services. 1908 :
1.072,400 letters, 33,831 postal money orders amounting to a total sum of
5,176,536 Mark; 23,373 parcels, 98,462 newspaper issues, 41,990 telegrams,
263,174 telephone calls. Postal delivery : three to four times a month. Time
for delivery Berlin-Duala 19 to 24 days. Telegram fee 5.30 Mark per word.
Administration : seat of the governor (presently Dr. Seitz) is Buea.
Presently the protectorate consists of 19 administrative districts, 11 of
which are under civilian administration : Rio-del-Rey, Ossidinge,
Johann-Albrechtshohe, Victoria, Buea, Duala, Bare, Jabassi, Edea, Jaunde,
Kribi, Ebolowa, Lomie, Dume, Dschang, Bamenda, Banjo, Garua, Kusseri (The
last two so-called residentures in Adama and the German Lake Chad
Schutztruppe : 154 white ranks, mainly divided in 10 companies. 1300
coloureds (after data of 1909). Police troops placed under German military
personnel are allocated to the individual stations.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Yearbook and Remarks by
Hubert Henoch. Berlin 1910, p.13f|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher Sprache