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Imperialism | Colonial Policy

[P|S|M]

Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1913, Retrospect on the Development of Germany's Protectorates in the Pacific in 1912
A.) Samoa

(p.35) In 1912 Samoa has got a new governor. Dr. Solf, who has been appointed undersecretary of state, was succeeded by Dr. Schultz, hitherto his deputy. He was on home leave between the end of 1912 and March 1913 and has been deputized for by district administrator Schlettwein. 
Unrest among the indigenous population, which had appeared a few years ago, has not reappeared, not even on the occasion of the death of the so-called Alii Sili Mataafa. It is not planned to recreate the position of a recognized high chief; it will be the task of the governor to establish a new foundation of the indigenous population's administration, and by doing so to employ the Samoan's undeniable administrative talent. 
The administration has succeeded to terminate an old, but not hygienic tradition, the custom to bury the dead on the ground where they used to live. Steps have been undertaken to establish community cemeteries. In general, the indigenous have responded positively. 
A census of the Samoans resulted in only minor changes. In contrast, the white population has increased, only slightly. Their businesses seem to face a severe crisis, as the Chinese government makes the further import of Chinese coolies increasingly difficult. In the beginning of 1913, these difficulties could, for one time, be overcome. Should these difficulties continue, the recently established rubber and cocoa plantations would possibly face difficulties. The export of copra has strongly increased over the numbers of 1910. Whites have contributed 3,000 tons to the total export of 10,237 tons of copra, the remainder, the larger part, on plantations of Samoans. In the younger palm stands, unfortunately the rhinocerus beetle is causing damage; fortunately, considerable losses have not appeared yet. 
Also last year, the protectorate Samoa has financed it's budget without subsidy from the motherland. 


B.) Deutsch-Neuguinea

In Deutsch-Neuguinea the islands have been (p.36) integrated more and more over the years, so that the annual report contains no more separate paragraph on the islands. Unrest, rebellions or violent acts against whites have not taken place. Only in Kaiser-Wilhelmsland hunters who were after the bird of paradise fell victim to the indigenous. Also the feuds of the indigenous tribes among themselves have not completely been extinguished. Contact with the shy and suspicious Bainingers, who live withdrawn and isolated in the remote mountains of Neu-Pommern, has been established. 
The administration of the Marianas complains that the economy is stagnating because there is no efficient exporter and importer. The entire trade is dominated by the Japanese, while the administrastion is trying to establish a well-funded German enterprise, which would serve Germany's interest. 
Our knowledge of the protectorate is especially poor in Neuguinea. Therefore the expedition which since February 1912 explores the Kaiserin-Auguste-Fluss region, lead by junior mining official Stolle deserves to be mentioned. It has done a remarkable work of exploration; it's steamer "Kolonialgesellschaft" penetrated far into the interior; one of the members of the expedition went southward and reached the Mittelgebirge. Their reports have been published in the Deutsche Kolonialzeitung, with illustrations and maps. 
As, as aforementioned, the Japanese dominate the Marianas economically, it is mentioned that 131 of them are active in Deutsch-Neuguinea, of them 2/3 in the island region and only 41 in the so-called old protectorate. Chinese are to be found in the phosphate mines of Nauru and Angaur, where some of them have established themselves as merchants. At other places the Chinamen work as craftsmen, entrepreneurs, planters, merchants or cooks. The statistics show a continual increase of Chinese immigration, which has to be described as undesirable. 
The school for Europeans at NAMANULA not far from Rabaul, with 4 classes, has been frequented by 15 children who are taught 30 hours a week. The schools for the indigenous are equally strongly frequented. The government school in Saipan is a model school, an elementary school with 4 grades; schooling is obligatory for the 7 to 13 year old. Then there is a secondary school since 1910, where 1 German teacher and 4 indigenous assistant teachers are instructing. The missions of both confessions operate an extensive network of schools. 
In Deutsch-Neuguinea, today there are 200,000 ha plantations in private hands; of these ca. 30,000 ha are under cultivation, but only ca. 10,000 ha productive. Mainly it it still copra plantations which are established, because of the favourable price for copra. In the island region, with the exception of the Marshall Islands, the plantation culture is still in it's beginnings. Since January 1st 1912 the Westkarolinen-Gesellschaft has opened it's operations on Jap; in the Eastern Carolines a similar company is being set up. The plantations employ 132 whites and about 14,000 coloured workers. 
Copra produced by the indigenous dominated the total export of about 6.5 million Mark. Their products are not of the same quality as those produced by European planters, but the government is taking steps to cause the coloureds to take greater care for the quality of their copra. The export of phosphates declined; it is to be explained with unfavourable navigation as well as with the precipitation which makes drying the phosphates difficult. Neither the company on Angaur nor the one on Nauru complain about the workers and their conditions. 
The hunt for birds of paradise has gained in importance. The high prices achieved for their hides and the often easy profits were a strong incentive to take up this business. In this context, undesirable developments occur, while on the other hand it has to be stated that a number of owners of smaller plantations have financed their plantations with profits from hunting birds of paradise. Hunting is done by coloured hunters hired by Europeans. 
(p.37) It is reported that restrictions are planned to prevent too strong an increase of hunting. In 1911 8,779 bird of paradise skins were exported, as compared to 5,706 in 1910. Even if the colony, because of it's size, is home to many of these birds, a damaging of their stock is to be feared if hunters continue to decimate them. It is therefore foreseeable that hunting of birds of paradise will be outlawed completely in near future. 
Other animal products - shark's fins, trepang, tortoise shell, mother-of-pearl etc. are negligible when compared to the bird of paradise skins. Hopefully the cultivation of cocoa, tobacco and rubber grow in importance to provide the colony with a solid economic basis. 
The colony is located very far from the motherland, which has a couple of disadvantages. Telegraphic connections are lacking; today only Jap and Angaur are connected to the world telegraph net by radio stations. Further radio stations are planned for Rabaul, Nauru and Apia, which hopefully soon are realized. In all branches of the postal service increases have been noted, an indicator that our colonies in the Pacific progress.

 

Colonial Literature and Maps : The German Protectorates in the Pacific 

Eine Reise durch die Deutschen Kolonien (A Journey through Germany's Colonies), edited by the illustrated magazine "Kolonie und Heimat". Volume V : Südsee (Southern Sea), with 4 maps and more than 200 illustrations. 1911. price : 5 Mark. 

H. Neffgen, Die Südsee und Südseesprachen, mit spezieller Betrachtung des Samoanischen (The South Sea and South Sea Languages, with special consideration of Samoanese), 1912, 19 pp., price 1.20 Mark 

R. Neuhauss, Deutsch-Neuguinea. Vol.1 with 384 illustrations and a map, Vol.2 ethnological atlas with 764 illustrations and a map; edited with the support of the Rudolf-Virchow Endowment in Berlin, price of Bd.1,2 in elegant binding 80 Mark, Vol.3, contribution of the missionaries Keysser, Stolz, Zahn, Lehner, Bamler, 20 Mark. 

Samoa, Das deutsche Schutzgebiet. Allgemeine Auskunft und Adressbuch (Samoa, the German Protectorate. General Information and Directory), edited by the Kaiserliches Gouvernement at Apia, 1911, price : 2 Mark 

K. Sapper, Beiträge zu einer Landeskunde von Neumecklenburg und seinen Nachbarinseln. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer amtlichen Forschungsreise nach dem Bismarck-Archipel im Jahre 1908 (Contributions to a country study of Neu-Mecklenburg and it's neighbouring islands. Scientific results of an official exprdition to the Bismarck Archipelago in the year 1908), 1910, price 3.50 Mark. 

R. Schlechter, Die Gutrapercha- und Kautschuk-Expedition des Kolonial-Wirtschafts-Kommittees nach Kaiser-Wilhelmsland 1907-1909 (The Colonial Economic Committee's Guttapercha and Caoutchouc Expredition of 1907-1909 to Kaiser-Wilhelmsland) with 7 plates and 3 maps, 1911, price 1 Mark. 

W. Spemann, Die landwirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse auf Samoa (W. Spemann, the agricultural conditions on Samoa), illustrated, 1911, price -.50 Mark 

Südsee-Handbuch (South Sea Manual), with 60 coastal sights and1 survey map, edited by the Reichs-Marineamt. 1912, 254 pp., price : 3 Mark. 

H. Vogel, Eine Forschungsreise im Bismarck-Archipel (A research expedition in the Bismarck Archipelago), with an introduction by Prof. Thilenius, with many illustrations, price : 16 Mark. 

E. Werner, Kaiser-Wilhelmsland. Beobachtungen und Erlebnisse in den Urwaeldern Neuguineas (Kaiser-Wilhelmsland. Observations and Memories from Neuguinea's Jungles), with many illustrations, 1 map, price 7 Mark, bound 8.30 Mark. 

Wall maps of the German Colonies : Deutsche Besitzungen im Stillen Ozean German possessions in the Pacific Ocean), edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 4 leaves, Uebersichtskarte der deutschen Besitzungen im Stillen Ozean und von Kiautschou (Survey map of the German possessions in the Pacific Ocean and of Kiautschou), 1:15,000,000 ; Marianen, Karolinen und Marshall-Inseln, 1:3,000,000 ; Ponape 1:250,000 ; Jaluitinseln 1:1,000,000 ; Japinseln 1:250,000 ; Kiautschou 1:300,000 ; Deutsch-Neuguinea (Kaiser-Wilhelmsland) und Bismarckarchipel 1:2,000,000 ; the northeastern part of the Gazelle Peninsula 1:300,000 ; Samoa-Inseln 1:600,000. Price 12 Mark. 

Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land. Reise von Finschhafen nach dem Markhamfluss. (Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land, Journey from Finschhafen to the Markham River), drawn after the travel diary of missionary G. Pilhofer, 1:400,000 

Die Südostecke von Kaiser-Wilhelmsland. Nach den astronomischen Ortsbestimmungen und Vermessungen der deutsch-englischen Grenzexpedition 1908-1909 (The south-eastern corner of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, according to the astronomical observations and the survey by the German-British border expedition, 1908-1909), among others edited by M. Moisel, 1:300,000 

Sprachenkarte von Neu-Mecklenburg und den Nachbargebieten (Language map of Neu-Mecklenburg and adjacent areas), sketched by Dr. Georg Friederici, 1910, 1:1,000,000. 

Further notes on literature and maps can be found in Dietrich Reimer's "Mitteilungen für Ansiedler, Farmer, Tropenpflanzer, Beamte, Forschungsreisende und Kaufleute". Issued quarterly, single issues at 30 Pfennig; yearly issue, postage included, at 1.60 Mark. Available at all bookstores or directly from Dietrich Reimer (Erich Vohsen), Berlin SW 48.


Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1913, p.35f

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
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