Primary Source
Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1913, Retrospect on the Development of the Kiautschou Area in 1912
Retrospect on the Development of the Kiautschou Area in 1912

(p.39) When we refer to our east Asian protectorate, we have to mention the difficult political conditions in China. Luckily the Chinese Revolution which rages since the fall of 1911 have had little direct impact on Tsingtau and it's hinterland. On the contrary, in these critical months our colony has been a bastion of reliability and efficiency. Inmidst the turmoil caused by the revolution, among all cities of Northern China Kiautschou always has remained peaceful and offered security, and it's economy continued to expand. 
Tsingtau has exercised extraordinary attraction on Chinese who suffered under the political instability; during the last years, 10 to 12,000 Chinese have acquired real estate and built homes. The administration did not take any census in order to avoid unrest; yet the aforementioned figures are regarded accurate. In the most cases the immigrant Chinese are well-off, so that the immigrants contribute to the colony's economic development. 
In Tsingtau, in the last years demand for real estate has been higher than ever before. This has had an impact on European businesses which gave up their scepticism regarding establishing a permanent presence; now, close to the harbour a large business district is developing. Many of the immigrant Chinese have founded trade businesses or manufacturing businesses. 
The figures of the trade and customs statistics both indicate progress. The total trade volume rose from 140 million Mark to 180 million Mark, the customs revenue from Oktober 1911 to September 1912 rose from 1,307,000 Taels to 1,406,000 Taels. Fortunately the German share in the total trade volume also grew. However, it is not living up to it's potential and the official report appeals to the German export industry and commerce to realize the opportunities the colony, with it's wide hinterland, is offering. 
The key to the hinterland is the Schantung railway. It's traffic has again increased, because the line Tientsin-Pukow, which functions as a feeder, has been finished last year; it will continue to increase when the planned sideline from Kaumi via Itschoufu to Hantschwan is available. The Schantung railway is profitable; unfortunately the Schantung-Bergbau-Gesellschaft (Schantung mining co.) has had to give up, and to hand over it's privileges and assets to the Schantung railway co. For years now it is considered to exploit Schantung's large iron deposits. The official survey informs that these plans now have matured, so that we have to expect steeel mills to emerge in Tsingtau in near future. It is to be noted that Tsingtau more and more attracts Schantung's entire import, especially since the railway line Tientsin-Pukow, which crosses the Hwangho near Tsinanfu, was completed. 
Besides the economic duties in Kiautschou the cultural duties are not neglected, as the development of the education system shows. The government school for European children, a Reform-Realgymnasium (= type of a high school) both see growing numbers of students. The same can be said about the German-Chinese college with at present nine fully occupied classes (285 students in the lower, 66 students in the upper track). It is hoped to develop this institution more and more to the center of German culture in China. Today so many Chinese apply that the majority has to be rejected. At the end of 1912 the first students of the law department have passed their final examination in German language, compatible to the requirements of the Bavarian state examination. The translation institute attached to the college again has produced a number of translations from the Chinese into the German and vice versa. The publication of the second part of a German-English-Chinese dictionary deserves to be mentioned especially. The missions of both confessions very efficiently support the German cultural policy in the field of schooling. 
Regarding our colonial policy in the interior official sources report the following : The German sector, which is given special attention by the Navy Administration, had registered a good harvest in the year reported. Also the straw plaiting industry, introduced by the Navy Administration, has made considerable progress. There is no village (p.40) within the German area where no plaiting takes place. The products made by this industry have been approved for export; therefore it is hoped that this industry will continue to make progress. Also silkworm breeding was successful. Experiments so far let us conclude that the climate is favourable for both silkworms and mulberry trees. Tjis year for the first time several villages have been given eggs by the experimental station at Litsun, for the purpose of further, commercial breeding. Road construction and the planting of Acacias in the villages and along the roads, with the cooperation of the Chinese population, is progressing. The Chinese volunteered to work with the reforestation of mountainous terrain, with the professional advice of the German forestry. 
The harvest in the hinterland was good, which had a positive influence on the port of Tsingtau. In the last year, the Schantung district bank has opened an office in Tsingtau, as well as did a number of other Chinese private banks. The fact that the rich immigrant Chinese establish themselves in this sector is, in a report of the General Consulate in Shanghai, described as desirable. 
We have hosted the German flag in Tsingtau 15 years ago in order to open Schantung, together with the Chinese, to German pioneer spirit.


Colonial Literature and Maps : Kiautschou 

Denkschrift betreffend die Entwicklung des Kiautschou-Gebiets im Jahre 1908 bis Oktober 1909. (Memorandum pertaining to the development of the Kiautschou area in the year 1908 until October 1909), with appendices, 1910, price : 2,50 Mark 

K. Dove, Das Südseegebiet und Kiautschou. (The South Sea Area and Kiautschou), with 16 plates and a map, price : -,80 Mark. 

L. Martin, Meine letzte Ostasienfahrt. Ein Vademecum für die beneidenswerten Reisenden zum fernen Osten mit Schiff und Bahn, den Jungen zur Belehrung, den Alten zur Erinnerung. (My last East Asia Trip. A Vademecum for the enviable travellers by ship and train to the far east, (a reader) for the young to study, for the old to remember), 281 pp., 1911, price : 4 Mark 

F. Mohr, Handbuch für das Schutzgebiet Kiautschou (Manual for the Kiautschou Protectorate), about 500 pp., 1911, price 7,50 Mark. 

M. Pfeiffer, Ein Deutscher Reiterposten in Schantung (A German Cavalryman's Post in Schantung), with 121 illustrations and 9 plates, price 6 Mark. 

Further notes on literature and maps can be found in Dietrich Reimer's "Mitteilungen für Ansiedler, Farmer, Tropenpflanzer, Beamte, Forschungsreisende und Kaufleute". Issued quarterly, single issues at 30 Pfennig; yearly issue, postage included, at 1.60 Mark. Available at all bookstores or directly from Dietrich Reimer (Erich Vohsen), Berlin SW 48.

Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1913, p.39f

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
posted on the web for psm-data; many thanks to

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz 

Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Dokument in deutscher Sprache