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Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1913, Retrospect on Togo's Development in 1912

Retrospect on Togo's Development in 1912 (p.16)

Since April 15th 1912 the protectorate has a new governor, his highness Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg. On August 28th he formally took over the administration in Lome, and in the meantime he undertook several inspections throughout his colony. 
Our smallest protectorate as always is in a very favourable state; also in 1912 it could finance it's own budget; subventions from the Reich were unnecessary. Relations with the native population were good, as usual, minor events in certain districts disregarded. By the way, blacks which have acted in rebellious fashion have fled onto French territory, so that no arrests could be made. 
The white population, compared to last year, has declined. This is not unusual; the decline by 18 Europeans is explained by the completion of railway construction, which made a number of engineers and railway personnel superfluous. A small decline can be observed in the number of merchants, which can be explained by the rising number of coloured men in self-employed positions. Unfortunately a number of coloureds emigrate into the neighbouring colonies to work as assistant salesmen, craftsmen, cooks etc. They acquire education in our schools and then are welcomed in the colonies of other countries, where they are offered higher wages. 
(p.17) The government operates schools in Lome, Sebe and Sokode, where several hundred students are enrolled. Much larger is the number of schools run by the missions : the Norddeutsche Missionsanstalt runs 163 schools with ca. 6,000 students, the Katholische Mission 196 schools with 7,800 students. The elementary schools lead to institutions of further education and schools for craftsmen, with a forge, a fitting shop, a book-binder's shop, a carpenter's shop etc. Today there are 568 coloured carpenters, 133 masons, 302 locksmiths and blacksmiths, 333 tailors, 10 cobblers and 4 black photographers in the colony. 
In this context the Agrarian School in Nuaetjae is to be mentioned. Here a number of coloureds have been trained in ploughing and in the cultivation of a number of domesticated plants; these students have, after graduation, been settled with some financial aid. Native farming still forms the economic backbone of the protectorate's economy. In cotton production, last year's decline had been made up for, despite the fact that there was too much precipitation. The Bremen Cotton Bourse has favourably judged Togo's production. In the calendar year of 1912, 517 and a half tons were exported, of a value of 1/2 million Mark, as compared to 464 tons / 456,000 Mark the year before. 
Again the colony exported more oil palm products onto the world market than the year before, and earned 5,612,000 Mark. The increase in export is mainly due to favourable precipitation, but also due to an extension of the area served by the inland railway, which extended the marketing areas of certain districts. In the Misahöhe district a factory for the processing of oil palm products has taken up operation; another one in Lome is under construction. The maize harvests declined again, because of peculiar reasons. In the begin of planting season a smallpox epidemics affected the coastal maize-growing area. Then, when the disease abated, in the so-called short rainy season rain has held off. This caused despondency among the native farmers, which verged on desperation. The annual report assumes that next year's maize harvest will increase. 
Rubber exports have increased in quantity, but because of unfavourable world market prices have declined in value. An improvement can be noted regarding cocoa, which is produced almost exclusively by native farmers in the Misahöhe district; these farms have been established during the last 10 years without government encouragement, stimulated by the success of cocoa cultivation in the Gold Coast. Near the coast farmers focus more and more on the cocos palm. Of the copra exported in 1911 of a value of 64,000 Mark, 2/3 originate from the Kpeme Plantation, only a third from farms run by natives. A considerable number of nuts was consumed by the coloureds. By establishing plantations, a number of wealthy natives have laid the foundation to genuine prosperity. 
Worthy to mention is the inland trade of the hinterland districts, exclusively carried out by natives and which has two branches, Sudan trade and coastal trade. The former, mostly carried out by Haussa and other Sudan peoples, is a pure transit trade providing the Sudan with cola nuts from the cola production area in the Gold Coast. Sales of Sudanese products - cattle, schibutter, country cloth etc. - serves only to enable the merchants to purchase cola nuts. The Sudan trade is far more important, traverses the protectorate from northeast to southwest, but is for the protectorate and for European trade of subordinate importance. Road toll is collected; in 1911 98,358 Mk of road toll were collected. The coastal trade facilitates the exchange of godds between the coastal area and the hinterland. This trade provides not only the districts Sokode and Mangu the French hinterland of Mangu and French territory near Djongu. It is carried out by natives of these districts and by foreign merchants, mostly Haussa. They bring hinterland products to the coast, tobacco, schibutter, cattle etc. They take European imports, salt, cloth, brass sticks from the coast inland. Since the inland and hinterland railway lines were opened, Palime and Atakpame became the main markets. It is desirable to extend the railway line further northward. 
In his first months in office, the new governor has undertaken inspection tours of his protectorate, in all directions. At year's end he was on a longer expedition in the northern part of the colony.If there is something desired for the colony, it is the extension of it's railway network. In this respect the government is in communication with the companies, and it is undoubtable that the right decisions will be made. The railway lines hitherto opened have proven profitable and have had an invigorating effect on the economy of the adjacent regions.


Colonial Literature and Maps : Togo 

Eine Reise durch die deutschen Kolonien (A journey through Germany's Colonies) ed. by the illustrated magazine "Kolonie und Heimat", Vol.III : Togo. With 2 maps and 156 illustrations on coated paper, with 6 full-page illustrations, in multicoloured cover, price 4 Mark 

R. Fisch, Nord-Togo und seine westliche Nachbarschaft (Northern Togo and it's Western Neighbourhood), with 68 illustrations and 1 map, 189 pp., 1911, price 1.60 Mark. 

R. Fisch, Grammatik der Dagomba-Sprache, gesprochen in Nord-Togo und dem nördlichen Bezirk der Goldküste (Dagbane) (Grammar of the Dagomba language, spoken in Northern Togo and in the Northern tracts of the Gold Coast (Dagbane)), 78 pp., 1912, price 2 Mark. 

Oberförster Metzger, Die Forstwirtschaft im Schutzgebiet Togo (Forestry in the Protectorate of Togo). 1911, price 3.60 Mark. 

A. Mischlich, Lehrbuch der Hausa-Sprache (Primer of the Hausa Language), 235 pp., 1911, price 8 Mark. 

G.H. Pape, Anleitung für die Baumwoll-Kultur in Togo (Instruction for the Cultivation of Cotton in Togo), with 9 sketches, 1911, price 2.25 Mark. 

Martin Schlunk, Die norddeutsche Mission in Togo (The Northern German Mission in Togo), Vol.I : Meine Reise durchs Eweland (My Journey across Eweland) 1910, 176 pp., Price 1 Mark. 

D.J. Spieth, Die Rechtsanschauungen der Eweer in Süd-Togo (Legal Conceptions of the Ewe People in Southern Togo), (K.R. VI 12) M. 1,- 

D.J. Spieth, Die Religion der Eweer in Süd-Togo, 1911, price 10 Mark, bound 11 Mark. 
D. Wassermann, Handbuch der Ful-Sprache (Manual of the Ful Language). Dictionary, Grammar, Exercises and Text. 1909, bound 8 Mark. 

D. Westermann, Gbesela or English-Ewe Dictionary. 111 pp., 1910, flexible binding 2 Mark. 

Wandkarte von Togo, 1:500,000 (wall map of Togo), ed. by P. Sprigade, size ca. 65x125 cm, price 6 Mark 

Die neue Abgrenzung zwischen Togo und den französischen Besitzungen in Dahomey und im Sudan (The new delimitation of Togo and the French possessions in Dahomey and Sudan), 1 : 2,500,000. 

Further notes on literature and maps can be found in Dietrich Reimer's "Mitteilungen für Ansiedler, Farmer, Tropenpflanzer, Beamte, Forschungsreisende und Kaufleute". Issued quarterly, single issues at 30 Pfennig; yearly issue, postage included, at 1.60 Mark. Available at all bookstores or directly from Dietrich Reimer (Erich Vohsen), Berlin SW 48

Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1913, p.16f

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
posted on the web for psm-data; many thanks to

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz 

Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Dokument in deutscher Sprache