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Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1913, Retrospect on Deutsch-Suedwestafrika's Development in 1912

Retrospect on Deutsch-Südwestafrika's Development in 1912

(p.24) In our settlement colony, the black have been quiet and peaceful this year, except a few minor incidents. For a while the rumour circulated that Simon Copper, the old fox, would have reappeared at the eastern border; we succeeded in arresting several robbers which have received their due punishment; but it was in no way a politically motivated rising. 
But we should keep alert, and therefore one of the most important demands for the colony is to keep the strength of the (p.25) Schutztruppe at it's present level. For an area one and a half time the size of Germany, which is inhabited by a population of 150,000 coloureds and 13,000 whites, the Schutztruppe has less than 2,000 men, which partially are occupied with police duties or other distracting duties. Because of the extended railway network strong detachments have to be held in readyness, to guard them; on the other hand they facilitate the mobility of the Schutztruppe. 
The Schutztruppe soldiers provide fresh blood to the white population of the country. Of the N.C.O.s and men releasede from service in the last year, about 60 stayed in the country. Some entered the ranks of the police service, others were employed as craftsmen, farm administrators or founded farms themselves. The number of young Germans who serve as volunteers for one year in the Südwestafrikanische Schutztruppe because they intend to stay in the colony afterwards. 
The share of Germans among the colony's white population of exactly 12,645 has risen considerably, while the share of foreigners decreased. Fortunately the number of white women increased; unfortunately the share of German women declined. 

The number of farms in the colony rose from 1,144 to 1,245 and in the entire colony there are 13 million ha farmland, where 172,000 head of cattle, 60,000 wool sheep, 435,000 meat sheep, a few more goats, 13,000 horses, in addition donkeys, mules, pigs and about 1,300 ostriches are kept. The raising of ostriches gains in importance. At Otjitueso a model farm for the breeding of ostriches has been established, which, with the assistance of the German consulate general in Cape Town, imported 24 adult ostriches from South Africa. The breeding program began shortly afterward and the chicks grew, adapting well to their new surrounding. More and more private farmers realize that ostrich breeding shall not be based on sub-standard breeding material. The Cape Colony profits very much from the breeding of ostriches and the sales of their feathers. 
Because the motherland and it's neighbours are affected by infectious diseases, no cattle and other breeding animals could be imported; as a result the prices rose. The breeding of wool sheep found new followers; many of the woll sheep farmers extended their herds by the acquisition of further flocks. 
His Majesty has joined the number of farm owners; he has purchased two farms in the central region of the protectorate. This certainly will be a stimulus for the settlers in our protectorate. 
Recently, where possible, more attention is spent on agriculture. For the time being, only maize and poptatoes are cultivated where there is sufficient rain. Elsewhere, agriculture is only possible eith irrigation. Several farmers have made attempts to introduce the so-called dry farming system, which has successfully been applied in the Cape Colony and in North America. 
(p.26) The cultivation of fruits is also promising, especially in the case of grapes (wine). Experiments in the area of forestry have been continued. Besides the government gardens in Windhoek, which supply thecountry with most of it's Casuarines, eucalyptus trees, prosopies, pepper shrubs etc. and most of all with vines, there are five forestry stations operated in the various parts of the country, serving the same purpose. The forestry garden in Ukuib, by the end of the year, on an area of 27,19 ha had a stand of 7,387 date palms; further experiments to cultivate the most valuable indigenous tree species (timber) are undertaken. Al forestry stations together sold more than 58,975 young trees to farmers, for a low price. A part of the profits have been used to plant public property. 
The cultivation of vegetables, which is only possible with irrigation, but to which there are few other obstacles, has been promoted . While it is constantly expanding, the production is unable to answer the rising demand, so prices for fesh produce remain high. 
The cultivation of tobacco is constantly expanding. According to experience, as far as the colony's central and southern region is concerned, it is only possible if the land is irrigated, and thus tied to aras where irrigation is possible. This branch of agriculture is still young. The main area of cultivation continues to be the region in Osona, where singularily pipe tobacco of reasonable quality has been grown and which is marketed. In recent years, planters have concentrated on turkish ciigarette tobacco which seems promising. To gain a reliable basis for the selection of sorts, methods of cultivation and fermentation the establishment of a Tobacco model farm in Okahandja has been begun. It is hoped to contribute to the development of this branch of agriculture. 
The final evaluation of this most important branch of the colony's economy is : Deutsch-Südwestafrika's farm economy, which in 1911 suffered from a draught, has recovered in 1912. The number of farms hads grown as government land has been leased or sold, as well as land of the companies. The number of cattle and sheep has increased considerably, especially that of wool sheep. The cultivation of field crops, tobacco, fruit and wine, often with irrigation, continued; all of these let us conclude that the farm economy developed satisfactory during the year reported here. Progress in the breeding of ostriches are especially noteworthy; the introduction of better breeds into the cattle breeding has, however, been interrupted, as no cattle could be imported from Germany and South Africa. Infectious diseases have been dealt with accordingly. 
The mining sector has overcome the stagnation of 1911. The value of the exported diamonds as well of the copper exports have increased, and the dark clouds which seemed to dim the future prospects are no more depressing the mood of the Lüderitzbucht men. As the diamond tax now is supposed to be counted according to it's net value, smaller enterprises which had terminated operation should be able to resume operation again. We should not forget that a thorough exploitation of the fields is only possible with the use of machinery. Several smaller manually operable machines have been offered for smaller enterprises. 
The origin of our protectorate's diamonds is still unclear. It is now assumed that they have been set free from the surrounding rock by erosion. The lifespan of southwestafrican diamonds is estimated at about 12 to 20 years. 
Deutsch-Südwestafrika's traffic net has been completed by the connection of the northern and southern segments of the railway line Windhoek-Keetmanshoop on February 18th 1912. Now it is possible to travel by rail from Grootfontein via Karibib-Windhoek-Keetmannshoop to Lüderitzbucht. Unfortunately the settlers complain about high freight costs. Undersecretary of state Dr. Solf has announced his intention to intervene, so that the situation will soon turn to the better. 
Deutsch-Südwestafrika's railroad net is regarded by some as insufficient. The Hamburg Chamber of Commerce, for instance, demands a railroad line into Amboland and a branch terminal line into the Gobabis district. Perhaps the last mentioned line once will be extended eastward beyond the border, so that our protectorate can be connected with earlier colonised South African territory, with which economically it has a lot in common.


Colonial Literature and Maps : Deutsch-Südwestafrika 

Deutsch-Südwestafrika. Amtlicher Ratgeber fuer Auswanderer. (Deutsch-Südwestafrika, Official Manual for Emigrants), 4th revised edition, 1912, 44 illustrations and 2 maps, price : 1 Mark. 

The new edition of the "Amtlicher Ratgeber" again has been edited by the Reichs-Kolonialamt and by the Kaiserliches Gouvernement (Imperial Government) in Windhoek; it contains all changes which appeared since the publication of the third edition in 1910. These changes predominantly relate to chapters II and III : 'settlement' and 'administration of the protectorate'. The appendices have been added to; here is referred to new legislation, railway timetables and freight prices. The Amtlicher Ratgeber provides the only official orientation regarding the condition of the colony; it will not only be purchased by every person intending to emigrate, but every person seriously interested in our colonies, colonial enterprises, banks, entrepreneurs and merchants which have business connections with Deutsch-Südwestafrika simply has to own the book. 

Deutsch-Südwestafrika. Kriegs- und Friedensbilder (Deutsch-Südwestafrika. Illustrations of War and Peace), 100 original photographs by F. Lange, Windhuk, price 25 Mark, reduced price 6 Mark. Splendid binding, excellently suited as a present. 

Deutsch-Südwestafrikanisches Adressbuch (German Southwest-African Directory), edited by the Adressen-Bureau A. Schulze, Swakopmund, 1912, price : 8 Mark. 

E. Eissinger, Im Damaraland und Kaokofeld. Erinnerungen an Südwestafrika. (In Damaraland and in the Kaokofeld. Reminiscences to Soutwest Africa.), 1912, hardcover, price 1.80 Mark. 

Helene von Falkenhausen, geb. Nitza, Ansiedler-Schicksale. 11 Jahre in Deutsch-Südwestafrika. 1893-1904 (settler fates. 11 years in German Southwest-Africa, 1893-1904). 260 pp., elegant binding, price 8 Mark. 

Dr. A. Golf, Ackerbau in Deutsch-Südwestafrika. Das Trockenfarmen und seine Anwendung in DSWA. (Agriculture in German Southwest-Africa. Dry farming and it's application in DSWA), 64 pp. with illustrations, 1911, price : 1.60 Mark. 

C. Meinhof, Grundriss einer Lautlehre der Bantusprachen nebst Anleitung zur Aufnahme von Bantusprachen. Anhang : Verzeichnis von Bantuwortstämmen. (Outline of a phonology of the Bantu languages. Annex : Index of Bantu language roots), 2nd edition, 340 pp., 2 illustrations and one coloured map, bound, price 14 Mark. 

C. Meinhof, Die Sprachen der Herero in Deutsch-Südwestafrika. (The languages of the Herero in DSWA), 1909, 114 pp., bound price 4 Mark. 

C. Meinhof, Grundzuege einer vergleichenden Grammatik der Bantusprachen. (Outline of a comparative grammar of the Bantu languages), 1909, bond price 8 Mark. 

R. Peters, Das Bergwesen in Deutsch-Südwestafrika. (Mining in DSWA), 1912, 464 pp., price 10 Mark. 

L. Sander, Geschichte der Deutschen Kolonial-Gesellschaft fuer Südwestafrika von ihrer Gruendung bis zum Jahre 1910 (History of the German Society for the Colonization of SWA from it's establishment until 1910), 2 volumes, 1912, 315 and 477 pp., price 30 Mark. 

Taschenbuch für Südwestafrika 1913 (SWA Manual for 1913), edited by Major K. Schwabe, Dr. Ph. Kuhn and Dr. G. Fock, 6th volume, 1913, 2 parts, price 5 Mark. 

The Hamburger Fremdenblatt comments : "It is a proper manual for SWA, for farmers, settlers, military personnel and merchants, a manual not only valuable to those who want to uphold German identity in SWA, but serves also to those friend of culture who stay at home as reference book. 

H. Toenjes, Ovamboland. Kand und Leute, mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung seines grössten Stammes Oukuanjama. (i>(Ovamboland, foremost the largest tribe, Oukuanjama), 316 pp., ill., 1911, price 5 Mark. 

Deutsch=Südwestafrika 1:2,000,000, edited by Paul Sprigade and Max Moisel. 2nd improved edition 1912, with index of placenames, price 5 Mark, folded 6.50 Mark. 

Besitzstandkarte von Deutsch-Südwestafrika in 3 Blaettern. (Map featyring land ownership in DSWA, in 3 leaves), as of Oct. 1st 1911, edited by the Bureau der Kaiserlichen Landvermessung, 1:800,000, price 30 Mark. 
Karte des Deutsch-Portugiesischen Grenzgebietes in Südwestafrika. (Map of the German-Portuguese border region in SWA), edited by P. Sprigade, 1:500,000, leaf 1 price 3 Mark 

Uebersichtskarte des meteorologischen Beobachtungswesens von Deutsch-Südwestafrika im Beobachtungsjahre 1910/11 (Survey map of the meteorological obersvation system in DSWA in the year 1910/11), 1:2,000,000. 
Die Kalahari mit ihren Völkern und Handelsrouten. (The Kalahari with it's peoples and trade routes), ed. by Dr. Rud. Poech, 1:2,000,000 

Das Kaokofeld (Deutsch Südwestafrika) nach vorhandenem Material und eigenen Aufnahmen (The Kaokofeld (DSWA) after present data and own survey), ed. by Dipl.-Ing. J. Kuntz, 1:800,000, price 2 mark 

Geologische Uebersichtskarte des Kaokofeldes (Deutsch-Südwestafrika) (Geological survey map of the Kaokofeld, DSWA), 1:800,000, by J. Kuntz 

Geologische Uebersichtskarte des Deutschen Namalandes (Geological survey map of Deutsch-Namaland), surveyed in the years 1906-1910 by Dr. Paul Runge, 1:2,000,000 

Further notes on literature and maps can be found in Dietrich Reimer's "Mitteilungen fuer Ansiedler, Farmer, Tropenpflanzer, Beamte, Forschungsreisende und Kaufleute". IsSüd quarterly, single issues at 30 Pfennig; yearly issue, postage included, at 1.60 Mark. Available at all bookstores or directly from Dietrich Reimer (Erich Vohsen), Berlin SW 48.

Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1913, p.24ff.

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
posted on the web for psm-data; many thanks to

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz 

Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Dokument in deutscher Sprache