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Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1914, Deutsch-Ostafrika
Deutsch-Ostafrika (p.30)

History : On February 27th 1885 a letter of Imperial protection was granted to the territories acquired by Dr. Karl Peters. In 1889/90 Hermann von Wissmann subdued the Arabs' rebellion. In 1890 Witu as well as Zanzibar and Pemba were relinquished to the British. Among the indigenous rebellions the one of 1905/1906 should be mentioned.

Size :
including lake surface 997,000 square km (= twice the Reich). The borders were fixed by treaties with Portugal, Belgium and Britain in the years 1904 to 1912.

Population : Europeans : 1904 : 1,437, among them 1,102 Germans. 1905 : 1,873, among them 1,324 Germans and 316 adult women, 1906 : 2,465 / 1,499 / 401; 1907 : 2,629 / 1,656 / 437; 1908 : 2,845 / 2,014 / 507; 1909 : 3,287 / 2,384 / 582; 1910 : 3,756 / 2,703 / 921; 1911 : 4,227 / 3,113 / 1,058; 1912 : 4,866 / 3,579 / 1,237. 1913 : 5,336 whites, of them 4,107 Germans and 1,426 women. Since 1904 at the Kilimanjaro and Maru, in the Moschi District the immigration of Boers and European settlers (Swabians from Russia and Palestine, Reich Germans, Greeks, Italians etc.) Hitherto the black population has been overestimated; it is a little over 7.5 million. The most important element are Bantu negroes. The Bantu in the southern part of the colony are related to the Zulu. In the steppes of the north, until into the central region, the Massai which penetrated into the area from the north, live in statelets (Hamites, speaking languages of the Nilotic peoples). In the Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, as the ruling class among the Bantu, the Hamitic Wahima or Watussi in the landscape Ruanda.
The Wasuaheli are an ethnic mix of Arabs and indigenous; their idiom, a negro language with many Arab loanwords, Kisuaheli, which became East Africa's lingua franca (p.28), is spoken until far into the Congo Free State. Besides the indigenous, along the coast reside Arabs (from Muscat and Shihiri), Baluchis, Indians, Parsees, Goanese, Syrians, Egyptians, Turks. 1912 total non-indigenous coloured population : 14,900, of them 8,800 Indians and 4,100 Arabs.

Morphology : Deutsch-Ostafrika is part of the plateau stretching from Abyssinia to the Tafelberg, rising from the Indian Ocean westward toward the interior. it is structured by several rifts extending in south-northerly direction and reaches heights in the protectorate of 1,200 - 1,500 m and more. At the northern border the double-peaked Kilimanjaro (western peak : Kibo, 6,010 m, eastern peak : Mawensi, 5,355 m), covers an area of 3,770 square km. To the left of the Kilimanjaro the Pangani, the Pare Mountains, steeply declining toward the west; to the east the Usambara Mountains. A continuation of the Pare Mountasins, on the right bank of the Pangani, the Usigua Terrasse. The Nguru Mountains form the beginning of the rim mountain range which continues through Ussagara and Uhehe and extends to the Njasa. On the border between Ussagara and Uhehe the Rubeho Mountains. In the Nyassa Mountains peaks of 3,000 m, on the northeastern corner of Lake Nyassa the Livingstone Mountains. In the protectorate's north west the mountains of Urundi and Ruanda. In the rift to the north of Lake Kiwu the still active Kirunga Volcanoes.

Hydrology :
the plateau in general is dry. Rivers feeding into the Indian Ocean are, from north to south : the Umba, the Pangani which is navigable in it's lower bed (source at the Kilimanjaro), the Wami and Ruwu (estuary opposite Zanzibar), the Rufiji (lower stretch navigable to some extent), with the Kilombero or Ulanga and Ruaha; near the Rufiji estuary the island of Mafia; the Mbemkuru, the Lukuledi and the Rowuma (border river in the south).
Into Lake Tanganyika feed the Mlagarassi, into Lake Victoria the Kagera (mouth on British territory), the southernmost source of the Nile; out of Lake Njassa flows southward the Shire, toward the Zambezi; it is located outside of Deutsch-Ostafrika.
The three sweetwater lakes Lake Victoria (with it's many islands, 1,132 m above sea level, 66,000 square km = size of the Kingdom of Bavaria), Lake Tanganyika (782 m above sea level, 35,000 square km, size of East Prussia), Lake Njassa (677 m above sea level, 27,000 square km, size of West Prussia) and Lake Kiwu with it's many bays, to the north of Lake Tanganyika, which is only in part German.
To the west of the Kilimanjaro are located Lake Natron, Lake Njarasa and Lake Manjara. Lake Rukwa, located norteast of Lake Nyasa, has an altitude of 820 m and empties into a basin without outflow.

Climate : Deutsch-Ostafrika, from the 1st to the 12th degree southern latitude, entirely belongs to the hot climatic zone. From May to September the Southwest Passate wind is blowing, from December to March the Northeast Passate. The winds carry moisture onto the land and determine the rainy and dry seasons. Main meteorological station Daressalam; further 330 hydrological observation stations (p.32).
Along the coast the short rainy season is expected in November, the long one in March and April. The coolest month is July, with nightly temperatures of 16 degrees Celsius (over day up to 35 degrees and more). In the aforementioned higher located regions, Europeans can live without damaging their health.

Flora : Along the coast, especially in estuaries, swamp vegetation; mangrove zone. Following Pori, bush steppe with frequent tree growth (Acacias, Baobab, euphorbias etc.). In the mountains partially extensive forests with useful timber, for instance the Schume Forest in Wilhelmstal District, with large stands of cedars. Cultivated plants : cotton, sisal, coffee, rubber tree, cocos palm, rice, bananas, pineapple, acacias, peanuts, sesame, sorghum, sugar cane.

Fauna : tropical fauna with apes, large predator cats, pachyderms, crocodiles. In order to provide the animals with protection, a number of wildlife reservations have been established, in which all kinds of hunting are prohibited. The protectorate's fauna is more closely related to that of southern Africa than to that of western Africa. Both faunas meet in the northwestern corner of the colony. A distinct, peculiar character has the fauna of the large lakes in the interior. Hunting products play a role in exports; in addition negroes collect the wax of stocks of wild bees; animal breeding produces mainly hides and fur.

Minerals : In Ussongo and Ikome profitable gold deposits, at the Mlagarassi salt deposits, along the Njassa perhaps profitable coal deposits. At several places garnet and mica; mica export 1908 78,000 kg at a value of 211,000 Mark, 1909 259,000 Mark, 1910 321,000 Mark, 1911 348,000 Mark. 1912 : 582,000 Mark.

Trade : Exported are rubber, ivory, sesame, copal, coconuts, copra, peanuts, mats, cotton, hemp, timber, hides and fur, beeswax, antlers, butter (samli), coffee.
Imported are cotton products, rice, flour, iron and iron products, wine, beer, butter, sugar, meat, victualia, petrol, cement, vegetables and fruits, tobacco, liquors etc. Values of imports and exports see statistical tables on pp.12 and 13.

Infrastructure : Railways : The Usambara Line is regularly served since 1911 on the stretch Tanga-Arusha over 352 km. In 1912, 259,000 persons, 33,000 tons of cargo and 6,250 heads of cattle were transported. - Construction of the Line Daressalam-Morogoro (225 km), approved by the Reichstag in 1904, has been begun in late 1904 and reached Morogoro in October 1907. Tabora (850 km) was reached in February 1912. Extension to Lake Tanganyika (Udjidji, 412 km) was approved in December 1911 and by early 1914 the work had proceded until Kigoma on Lake Tanganjika. Length 1252 km; in 1912 107,000 persons, 84,300 tons of cargo and 13,000 head of cattle were transported.
Navigation : The eleven ports of the colony have been visited in 1909 by 488 steamers with about 1,520,000 tons, 1910 988 steamers / 2,000,000 tons, 1911 549 steamers, 1,690,000 tons, 1912 : 586 steamers, 1,800,000 reg.tons (the coastal traffic conducted by government vessels disregarded). In addition many sailing boats (dhaus) participate in the trade. On Lake Victoria the German pinasse "Ukerewe" is sailing, along with many British steamers and many dhaus, both British and German. On Lake Tanganyika the Hedwig von Wissmann, in Lake Nyassa the Hermann von Wissmann. A swimming dock is stationed in Daressalam.
Transit fee : Deutsche Ostafrikalinie, Line Genoa-Daressalam 1st class 675 Mark, 2nd class 350 Mark, main line Naples-Daressalam 1st class 750 Mark, 2nd class 525 Mark, 3rd class 300 Mark.

Postal and Telegraph Service : by the end of 1913 54 offices, among them 34 with telegram service and 18 with local telephone service; 2,537 km overland telegraph cables. 1912 : 3,676,000 letters, 177,779 postal money orders, total amount 41,819,584 Mark; 69,929 parcels, 465,200 newspaper issues, 315,965 telegrams, 304,153 telephone calls. Postal connection : 4-5 times a month, time of delivery Berlin-Daressalam 20 to 21 days, telegram fee per word to Bismarckburg and Udjidji 3.15 Mark, to the other (p.33) offices 2.75 Mark. In addition 3 radio telegraph stations at Muansa, Bukoba and Daressalam.

Education : schools for Europeans 2 in Daressalam, one each in Leudorf, Aruscha, Oldongo-Sambu. Government schools for coloureds in Tanga, Bagamojo, Daressalam, Tabora, Lindi, Kilwa, Bukoba, Muansa, Ssongea, Neu-Langenburg, Mpapua and 8 depending institutions, all with instruction in crafts. In addition schools run by the missions of both confessions.

Administration : Seat of the governor at Daressalam. Governor since 1912 Dr. H. Schnee. The protectorate is structured in now 24 districts : Wilhelmstal, Tanga, Pangani, Bagamojo, Morogoro, Daressalam, Rufidji (Utete), Kilwa, Lindi, Langenburg, Ssongea, Iringa, Tabora, Udjidji, Bismarckburg, Dodoma, Kondoa-Irangi, Aruscha, Mahenge, Moschi, Muansa, Bukoba, Urundi (Gitega) and Ruanda (Kigali).

Schutztruppe : 1 commander, 1 staff officer, 17 captains, 49 lieutenants, 42 medical officers, a total of 261 white officers and NCOs, 135 coloured NCOs, 1,785 soldiers (Askaris).

Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1914, p.30ff.

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
posted on the web for psm-data; many thanks to

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz 

Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Dokument in deutscher Sprache