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Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1914, The Development of the Kiautschou Area in 1913
The Development of the Kiautschou Area in 1913

The Chinese troubles disregarded the development of Tsingtau in 1913 was a favourable one. The economy has progressed and the sphere of influence of the port of Tsingtau has extended considerably into the interior. This hopefully will be all the more the case, when the Schanting railroad will be extended westward until the important overland line Peking-Hankow and when the branch line southward from Kaumi will be taken in service. On both projects our Kiautschou government has negotiated with the Chinese for years; only late in 1913 an agreement has been concluded.
Inhowfar this is connected with the general development of Tsingtau and her hinterland, the official report comments as follows : "Kiautschou now seems to leave the stadium of a mere trade colony and enter a promising industrial development. The Navy administration seems to have succeeded in having a German ironworks established here, which is likely to attract further industrial enterprises; this took years of effort. Furthermore, after lengthy negotiations with the Chinese administration, lately an extension of the railway net in the hinterland has been achieved, which soon, after detailed agreements will have been concluded, will be taken on. On one hand prospects for new, considerable orders for the German industry are opened; on the other hand a considerably enlarged field of activity in Schantung and her neighbouring provinces is opened for the German port of Tsingtau and for German trade in general.
On these two projects, of such an importance for the future of the protectorate, we will have to report in the future. Yet, first the following has to be briefly reported on the main features of the development of the previous year :
The immigration of Chinese, which has been described as characteristic in the last two annual reports, again has intensified. As compared with the census of 1910, according to the census of July 1913 the Chinese population within the city limits increased by 55,97 %. Currently the figure is 53,312 Chinese as compared to 34,180 in 1910. Because of the time and effort it would consume, a census of the Chinese population of the many villages in the rural area has not been undertaken. - The European population in the protectorate has increased from 1,621 persons in 1910 to 2,069 in 1913, thus by 27.62 %. Including the military and the 'water population' Tsingtau has a total population of 60,484, as compared to 40,264 in 1910. If this increase has to be attributed to the regular growth of the city, to a great extent the immigration of the Chinese is caused by the general insecurity in China. 
This immigration of Chinese again lead to a rise in general trade. This is expressed in an increased demand for real estate, which has caused the Europeans to secure their demand for real estate and to construct residences and business buildings. Thus busy construction was going on. The panorama of Tsingtau, which used to show large gaps waiting for construction, now has transformed into a complex where only a few parcels without edifice are still available. The quarter between Tapautau and the large port begins to merge.
Import trade has increased not inconsiderably, while the situation of import is less favourable. The revenues of the Chinese maritime customs office have increased. The figures are reported elsewhere. The port of Tsingtau has been frequented much more than in earlier years. In the report year (from October 1912 to October 1913) 902 ships have arrived, total 1,291,000 reg.-tons, as compared to 727 ships / 1.133,000 reg.-tons in the previous year. The Hamburg-Amerika-Linie plans to establish a new connection with Europe via Suez to the American West Coast, which regularly shall call at Tsingtau. The very same line last year for the first time, has sent steamers, which were on a world tour, to Tsingtau and the passengers have admired in astonishment the fast development of our colony.
Hitherto Tsingtau was in immediate communication with the motherland via the Imperial mail steamers of the Norddeutscher Lloyd, which called every 4 weeks on their journey out resprctively back home. This connection shall experience an improvement coming fall, as the steamers will call every fourteen days, and in addition a monthly steamer of the Hamburg-Amerika-Linie will call both en route out and back home. Reforestation falls into the economic sector. In the immediate neighbourhood of the city of Tsingtau, forest areas with high stands of trees have emerged, and everywhere in the concession area reforestation has been undertaken. The Chinese of the surrounding area volunteer for work, if the Forest Office provides them with seeds and seedlings, to plant the lands and the roadsides (p.44) belonging to them. By the way, one million of acacia seedlings have been sold.
Inhowfar our activity is a civilizatoric and cultural one, is shown in the field of education. Everything is tried in order to expand German-Chinese schooling. The German-Chinese University features centrally in this policy. 
She shall be further expanded; the new main instruction building has been taken into service in summer, the adjacent large assembly hall in fall last year. The collection of teaching equipment also is housed in the instruction buildings; it shall support instruction in technical subjects. It has been considerably added to by donations from the German industry. The higher classes, at the end of last school year, had 67 students, the lower classes 301 students. Since October last year the monthly magazine "Westöstlicher Bote", published by the Deutsch-Chinesische Hochschule in German language with Chinese notes, is issued. She may be indicating that the cooperation of Germans and Chinese is fruitful for both, not the least for the conditions in China, which, after the fall of the dynasty are in a state of unrest and dissolution.

Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1914, p.43ff.

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Dokument in deutscher Sprache