Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1914, Kamerun's Development in 1913
Development in 1913|
In the previous year, the history of the protectorate was dominated by border
regulation. On March 11th the Anglo-German agreement fixing the border between
Yola and the Cross River was signed. At the same time Franco-German expeditions
formed in order to fix the colony's southern and eastern border according to the
Morocco-Congo Agreement took up their work. This has been completed in the
present year and the officers and researchers, which had to function in the
respective departments, returned to their homeland in the fall of 1913. Last
year the handover of the exchanged territories also has taken place, the last
piece, the larger part of the ceded Logrone area, was handed over to France on
June 1st and we were given possession simultaneously of areas located further
south, to the north and south of the Ubangi tip. The border commissions have
worked in five individual departments. Minor arguments with natives disregarded,
they have fulfilled their task peacefully and provided us with valuable service
concerning the knowledge of land and people in the acquired territories.
The protectorate of Kamerun, according to a preliminary survey by the geodetic
bureau of the Reichskolonialamt, has an area of about 790,000 square km, while
Alt-Kamerun covered only 495,600 square km; in this figure (p.23) [image] lakes,
especially our share in Lake Chad, are included, as well as Kamerun Bay and the
creeks feeding into her. Now, Kamerun is only 45,000 square km smaller than
For long she has
been called a neglected colony. Hopefully this is going to change, after the
secretary of state of the Reichskolonialamt has visited her for several weeks in
September and October and has shown keen interest; but also because one the main
causes for her backwardness has been registered, the lack of transportation
In order obtain information on the opening of Northern Kamerun, Governor Dr.
Ebermaier travelled there late in 1912, to return only in June 1913; in the
course of his trip he visited Lake Chad. The leading administrator of the
protectorate had the opportunity to find out about the situation of the
administration in general, the policy concerning the natives, the missions and
schools, trade and transportation, agriculture and livestock breeding, as well
as their influence on the general situation in the north. Other administration
officials also have undertaken extensive field trips, for instance the health
commissioner into the areas affected by the sleeping disease in Neu-Kamerun and
the commissioner for economic policy into the area bordering on Spanish Muni.
Missions of more scientific character also have been dispatched; here the
expedition lead by Prof. and Mrs. Thorbecke, sent by the Deutsche
Kolonialgesellschaft into the area between Dschang, Dumban, Tibat and Joko
deserves to be mentioned. Other expeditions aiming at the exploration of
Neu-Kamerun are still out.
Regarding the reaction of the natives on the occasion of the takeover of the
newly acquired territories the official report comments : "As the newly
acquired territories are concerned, the takeover has met no resistance, a single
clash disregarded, which the 10th company had to stand through, which was given
the order to occupy the Wolo-Ntem district. Yet it cannot be denied that both in
the east and the south, the natives, hitherto under French administration,
observe us with suspicion. This has been caused by false information, invented
by a malevolent mind, on structure and purpose of our administration, which had
been spread. Under the circumstances it is not susprising that the first acts of
our administration and the activity of the border expeditions met passive, in
singular cases even active resistance, and were testing the patience of our
troops which had been ordered to proceed with the utmost hesitation. In
individual cases violence for the purpose of self defense could not be avoided.
Namely the Fang tribes of the south proved difficult from the start, forcing the
administration of the Iwindo district in cooperation with the southern border
expedition to proceed, in order to facilitate undisturbed surveying, against the
Sanga Sanga men who had never been subdued by the French."
At the end of the report year conditions naturally have not yet calmed down;
still in May, in the Muni district which is inhabited by particularly unrulty
people, skirmishes have occurred, in which a white NCO fell. How far instruction
and appropriate treatment can go, has again been proven in the report year.
The general relation of the administration with the natives improved,
undisturbed by the events previously described incidents based on special
conditions. A few exceptions disregarded, taxes are paid willingly, instructions
of the administration carried out, impulses by the administration in the
economic, sanitary, policing and similar sectors find keen interest.
The production by the natives has greatly declined because of the steep fall in
prices for caoutchouc. The native cultivations, namely those of cocoa, on the
lower Sanaga (p.24) and especially in the Jabassi district, have better
prospects. In 1912 the coloureds in these stretches have brought 715 tons of
cocoa to the market. The government supported their activity in this field by
dispatching experts and inspectors. The Dualas, too, habe established farms on
the coastal rivers, where they cultivate yams, makabo, planten, maize and
maniok, with all the more vigour as the intermediary trade which used to be so
profitable, is declining. At larger settlements, also at the larger caravan
stations in the interior, products such as these always find a customer.
The European plantations have gained considerably in size, the total area under
cultivation having been extended from 20,000 ha to 28,000 ha, the number of
employed workers from 13,272 to almost 18,000. The cocoa plantations of Mt.
Kamerun had a major share in this expansion. Today they cover more than 150 ha,
but suffer of lack of labour.
Under such favourable circumstances, foreign trade grew from 1911 to 1912 by
almost 1/7; trade with the motherland also increased markably. If this increase
continued into 1913 can not be stated yet. The fact that the import of brandy
has, after the fixation of the new tariffs, considerably decreased, is
For the colony the connection by the cable of the Deutsch-Südamerikanische
Telegraphen-Gesellschaft is of special importance. The stretch Lome-Duala was
taken into operation on January 18th 1913, so that from that day the
protectorate, in its communication with the motherland, has become independent
from the English cable corporation.
The range of the radio station at Duala, taken into operation on March 3rd, has
been extended by the establishment of a station on Fernando Poo, which is
especially desirable for communication with ships passing by and with the
Spanish government general. Finally a kind of courier mail is mentioned, named
"Flaggenpost" (flag mail, because of badges the couriers are wearing)
which has been introduced in large tracts of the colony for the disoatch of
urgent official mail.
As expected traffic has developed favourably along the northern railroad, opened
on April 1st 1911. The construction of the central railroad proceeds only
slowly, as the dense jungle is an extraordinary obstacle. The terminal on the
Njong riber shall be reached in 1916. Presently 153 km are in operation, until
just behind Edea.
The number of contract workers and day labourers employed in railroad
construction on average amounted to 5000. Feeding and lodging have been
supervised by the government through labour inspectors. The construction of a
field railroad parallel to the railroad and the use of dry excavators for the
movement of soil in larger ravines shall contribute to a faster progress of
If the government has given up the plan of the so-called southern railroad
because of cogent reasons not to be discussed here in detail, it does not fail
to recognize the necessity to open the south of the protectorate by a dense
network of roads and to connect it with the central districts which are served
by the railroad. The importance of Kamerun's south for the colony's economic
question is without doubt. Within the funds available, the raisingof which, by
considerable amounts, is planned, in the report year works were carried out
vigorously to expand the road network.
The backbone of the entire road system in the south is the large road from Kribi
via Lolodorf to Jaunde, 286 km long, and the branch road to Ebolowa. Along the
first 80 km the old wooden bridges have been replaced by concrete and steel
constructions, so that the Jaunde street more and more is fit for trucks, while
caution still has to be used. As a consequence, several houses have joined to
form the Südkameruner Lastautomobil-Gesellschaft m. b. H. (Southern Kamerun
Truck Corporation L.T.D.). The government also uses several motor vehicles.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1914, p.22ff.|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
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zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher