Colonial Policy|| |
Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook),
edited by the German Colonial Society, 1918, Deutsch-Ostafrika
History : On February 27th 1885 a letter of Imperial protection was
granted to the territories acquired by Dr. Karl Peters. In 1889/90 Hermann von
Wißmann subdued the Arabs' rebellion. 1890 Witu, Zanzibar and Pemba were
left to the British. Among the indigenous rebellions the one of 1905/1906 should
Size : including lake surface 997,000 square km (= twice the Reich). The
borders were fixed by treaties with Portugal, Belgium and Britain in the years
1904 to 1912.
Population : Europeans : 1904 : 1,437, among them 1,102 Germans. 1905 :
1,873, among them 1,324 Germans and 316 adult women, 1906 : 2,465 / 1,499 / 401;
1907 : 2,629 / 1,656 / 437; 1908 : 2,845 / 2,014 / 507; 1909 : 3,387 / 2,384 /
582; 1910 : 3,756 / 2,703 / 921; 1911 : 4,227 / 3,113 / 1,058; 1912 : 4,866 /
3,579 / 1,237. 1913 : 5,336 whites, of them 4,107 Germans and 1,426 whites.
Since 1904 at the Kilimanjaro and Meru, the immigration of Boers and
European settlers (Swabians from Russia and Palestine, Reich Germans, Greeks,
Italians etc.) Hitherto the black population has been overestimated; it is
slightly over 7.5 million. The most important element are Bantu negroes. The
Bantu in the southern part of the colony are related to the Zulu. In the steppes
of the north, until into the central region, the Massai which penetrated into
the area from the north, live in statelets (Hamites, speaking languages of the
Nilotic peoples). In the Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika,
as the ruling class among the Bantu, the Hamitic Wahima or Watussi in the
landscape Ruanda. The Wasuaheli are an ethnic mix of Arabs and indigenous; their
idiom, a negro language with many Arab loanwords, Kisuaheli, which became East
Africa's lingua franca (p.28), is spoken until far into the Congo. Besides the
indigenous, along the coast reside Arabs (from Muscat and Shihiri), Baluchis,
Indians, Parsees, Goanese, Syrians, Egyptians, Turks. 1912 total non-indigenous
coloured population : 14,900, of whom 8,800 Indians and 4,100 Arabs (p.21).
Morphology : Deutsch-Ostafrika is part of the plateau stretching from
Abyssinia to the Tafelberg, rising from the Indian Ocean westward toward the
interior. it is structured by several rifts extending in south-northerly
direction and reaches heights in the protectorate of 1,000 - 1,500 m and more.
At the northern border the double-peaked Kilimanjaro (western peak : Kibo, 6,010
m, eastern peak : Mawensi, 5,355 m), covers an area of 3,770 square km. To the
west Mt. Meru, 4,730 m. To the left of the Pangani, the Pare Mountains, steeply
declining toward the west; to the southeast the Usambara Mountains. A
continuation of the Pare Mountains, on the right bank of the Pangani, the Usigua
Terrasse. The Nguru Mountains form the beginning of the rim mountain range which
continues through Ussagara and Uhehe and extends to the Nyassa. On the border
between Ussagara and Uhehe the Rubeho Mountains. In the Nyassa Mountains
peaks of 3,000 m, on the northeastern corner of Lake Nyassa the Livingstone
Mountains. In the protectorate's north west the mountains of Urundi and Ruanda.
In the rift to the north of Lake Kiwu the still active Kirunga Volcanoes.
Hydrology : the plateau in general is dry. Rivers feeding into the Indian
Ocean are, from north to south : the Umba, the Pangani which is navigable in
it's lower bed (source at the Kilimanjaro), the Wami and Ruwu (estuary opposite
Zanzibar), the Rufiji (lower stretch navigable to some extent), with the
Kilombero or Ulanga and Ruaha; near the Rufiji estuary the island of Mafia; the
Mbemkuru, the Lukuledi and the Rowuma (border river in the south).
Into Lake Tanganyika feed the Mlagarassi, into Lake Victoria the Kagera (mouth
on British territory), the southernmost source of the Nile; out of Lake Nyassa
flows southward the Shire, toward the Zambezi; it is located outside of
The three sweetwater lakes Lake Victoria (with it's many islands, 1,132 m above
sea level, 66,000 square km = size of the Kingdom of Bavaria), Lake Tanganyika
(782 m above sea level, 35,000 square km, size of East Prussia), Lake
Nyassa (477 m above sea level, 27,000 square km) and Lake Kiwu with it's many
bays, to the north of Lake Tanganyika, which is German only in part. To the west
of the Kilimanjaro are located Lake Natron (610 m), Lake Njarasa (1,020 m) and
Lake Manjara (965 m), Lake Rukwa (820 m); they form basins without outflow.
Climate : Deutsch-Ostafrika belongs in its entire extent from the 1st to
the 12th degree s. latitiude to the hot climatic zone. From May to September the
Southwest Passate wind is blowing, from December to March the Northeast Passate.
The winds carry moisture onto the land and determine the rainy and dry seasons.
Main meteorological station Daressalam; further 330 pluviometric observation
Along the coast the short rainy season is expected in November, the long one in
March and April. The coolest month is July, with nightly temperatures of 16
degrees Celsius (over day up to 35 degrees and more). In the aforementioned
higher located regions, Europeans can live without damaging their health.
Flora : Along the coast, especially in estuaries, swamp vegetation;
mangrove zone. Following Pori, bush steppe with frequent tree growth (Acacias,
Baobab, euphorbias etc.). In the mountains partially extensive forests with useful
timber, for instance the Schume Forest in Wilhelmstal District, with large
stands of cedars. Cultivated plants : cotton, sisal, coffee, rubber tree, cocoa
palm, rice, bananas, pineapple, acacias, peanuts, sesame, sorghum, sugar cane
Fauna : tropical fauna with apes, large predator cats, pachyderms,
crocodiles. In order to provide the animals with protection, a number of
wildlife reservations have been established, in which all kinds of hunting are
prohibited. The protectorate's fauna is more closely related to that of southern
Africa than to that of western Africa. Both faunas meet in the northwestern
corner of the colony. A distinct, peculiar character has the fauna of the large
lakes in the interior. Hunting products play a role in exports; in addition
negroes collect the wax of stocks of wild bees; animal breeding produces mainly
hides and fur.
Minerals : In Sekenke and Ikoma profitable and exploited gold deposits,
at the Mlagarassi salt deposits (Saline Gottorp), along the Njassa perhaps
profitable coal deposits. At several places garnet and mica; mica export 1908
78,000 kg at a value of 211,000 Mark, 1909 259,000 Mark, 1910 321,000 Mark, 1911
348,000 Mark. 1912 : 582,000 Mark).
Trade : Exported are rubber, ivory, sesame, copal, cocoanuts, copra,
peanuts, mats, cotton, hemp, timber, hides and fur, beeswax, antlers, butter
Imported are cotton products, rice, flour, iron and iron products, wine, beer,
butter, sugar, meat, victualia, petrol, cement, vegetables and fruits, tobacco,
liquors etc. Values of ex- and imports see table on page 10.
Traffic : Railways : The Usambara Line is regularly served since 1911 on
the stretch Tanga-Arusha over 352 km. In 1912 259,000 persons, 33,000 tons of
goods and 6,250 head of cattle etc. were transported. - Construction of the Line
Daressalam-Morogoro (225 km), approved by the Reichstag in 1904, has been begun
in late 1904 and reached Morogoro in October 1907. Tabora (850 km) was reached
in February 1912 (p.22). Extension to Lake Tanganyika (Udjidji, 412 km) was
approved in December 1911 and by early 1914 the work had proceded until Kigoma
on Lake Tanganyika. In 1912 107,000 persons, 84,300 tons of goods and 13,000
head of cattle etc. were transported.
Navigation : The eleven ports of the colony have been visited in 1909 by 488
steamers with about 1,520,000 tons, 1910 988 steamers / 2,000,000 tons, 1911 549
steamers, 1,690,000 tons, 1912 586 steamers, 1,800,000 tons (the coastal traffic
conducted by government vessels disregarded). In addition many sailing boats
(dhows) participate in the trade. On Lake Victoria the German pinasse
"Ukerewe" is sailing, along with many British steamers and many
dhows, both British and German. On Lake Tanganyika the "Hedwig von Wißmann";
several ships are under construction at Kigoma, in Lake Nyassa the "Hermann
von Wißmann". A swimming dock is stationed in Daressalam.
Postal and Telegraph Service : by the end of 1913 54 offices, among them 34 with
telegram service and 18 with local telephone service; 2,537 km overland
telegraph cables. 1912 : 3,676,500 letters, 177,779 postal money orders, total
amount 41,819,584 Mark; 69,929 parcels, 465,200 newspaper issues, 315,965
telegrams, 304,153 telephone calls. Postal connection : 4-5 times a month, time
of delivery Berlin-Daressalam 20 to 21 days, telegram fee per word to
Bismarckburg and Udjidji 3.15 Mark, to the other offices 2.75 Mark.
In addition 3 radio telegraph stations in Muansa, Bukoba and Daressalam.
Education : schools for Europeans 2 in Daressalam, one each in Leudorf,
Arusha, Oldongo-Sambo. Government schools for coloureds in Tanga, Bagamojo,
Daressalam, Tabora, Lindi, Kilwa, Bukoba, Muansa, Ssongea, Neu-Langenburg,
Mpapua and 8 depending institutions, all with instruction in crafts. In addition
schools run by the missions of both confessions.
Administration : Seat of the governor at Daressalam. Governor since 1912
Dr. H. Schnee. The protectorate is structured in now 24 districts : Wilhelmstal,
Tanga, Pangani, Bagamojo, Morogoro, Daressalam, Rufidji (Utete), Kilwa, Lindi,
Langenburg, Ssongea, Iringa, Tabora, Udjidji, Bismarckburg, Dodoma,
Kondoa-Jrangi, Arusha, Mahenge, Moschi, Muansa, Bukoba, Urundi (Gitega) and
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Surveys and retrospects
by Dr. Karstedt. Berlin 1918, p.20f|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher