Colonial Policy|| |
Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook),
edited by the German Colonial Society, 1918, The
German Protectorates in the Pacific Ocean
Protectorates in the Pacific Ocean
1. Deutsch-Neuguinea (p.25)
The entire protectorate has an area of 242,500 square km and a population of
1,178 whites and an estimated 600,000 coloureds. Reliable figures regarding
their number can, for the time being, not be given from official side.
a. The Bismarck-Archipelago
Size : about 61,000 square km (roughly two thirds of Bavaria). The main
islands of the archipelago are Neu-Pommern with the Gazelle Peninsula and
Neu-Mecklenburg, separated by the St. Georgs-Kanal, further Neu-Hannover, as
well as the island of Neu-Lauenburg, limiting the Blanche Bay off the Gazelle
Peninsula. Within the bay the small island of Matupi where the German flag first
has been hoisted on November 3rd 1884. In the northwest the Admiralty Islands,
the largest Manus, the smaller Hermit Islands (p.26), the Ninigo Islands, Maty
and Durour. Of the Solomon Islands the northernmost, Buka and Bougainville,
which play a role as recruiting areas for workers. The islands located further
south, by agreement of 1899, are British.
Population : The coloured population is estimated at roughly 200,000
(Melanesians or Papua). In the district Gazelle Peninsula 28,718 were counted,
in Neu-Lauenburg 2,969, on the Witu Islands 1,356. In the other districts the
population figures have been established partly purely by estimation, partly as
a combination of estimation and census. Baining 5,000, Neu-Pommern 50,000,
Neu-Mecklenburg-Nord and Neu-Hannover 28,000, Neu-Mecklenburg-Sued 27,000, St.
Mathias 3,000, Admiralty Islands 10,000, Solomon Islands 33,000. The European
population was in 1904 318 whites, of them 203 Germans, in 1905 335 whites, of
them 233 Germans, in 1906 383 / 267, in 1907 360 / 255, of them 100 adult women,
in 1908 463 / 364 / 105, 1910 510, of whom 118 adult female, in 1911 563 whites,
402 Germans, 94 adult women. 1912 : 685, of whom 482 Germans and 134 adult
women. Further several hundert not indigenous coloureds (Chinese (in the entire
protectorate 1141), Malays, not indigenous Pacific islanders)
Morphology and Hydrology : all islands are mountainous. On
Neu-Mecklenburg mountains up to a height of 1,200 m. On the Gazelle Peninsula
the volcanoes Mutter with Nordtochter and Suedtochter. Neu-Pommern has many
coastal rivers; the Holmesfluss on the Gazelle Peninsula. On Bougainville the
Kaisergebirge mith the three-peak Balbiberg (3,067 m).
Climate : The Archipelago has a tropical climate, mildened by the
maritime surrounding. Average annual temperature 26 degrees. Lowest rainfall
mostly July to October. Earthquakes frequent, but not dangerous.
Flora : (This and the next paragraph also are valid for
Kaiser-Wilhelmsland) Very lush vegetation. Dense forest with slim trees, lianas
winding around them. Guttapercha growth. In higher altitudes treeless grass
steppes. Cultivated plants : coco palm; the plantation of rubber, cocoa, cotton
in testing phase. Coffee, tobacco negligible.
Fauna : No predators, no monkeys, i.e. an Australian fauna, for instance
marsupials. Birds of paradise, the most beautiful representative of a rich
avifauna. Of the maritime fauna Holothurus (Trepang) and mother-of-pearl
clams are mentioned.
Minerals : On Neu-Mecklenburg coal has been found on several locations,
but not yet investigated regarding workability/profitability. In
Kaiser-Wilhelmsland on the German-British border (Herkules-Fluss) profitable
deposits of alluvial gold; near Kaiserin-Auguste-River petrol.
Trade and Transportation : Copra, some rubber, cocoa, coffee, nuts,
trepang, mother-of-pearl, tortoise-shell, bird-of-paradise bellows. Values of
exports and imports see table on page 10.
Main import goods are food articles, meat, yarn, textiles, metals and
metalwares, tobacco, beverages, coal etc.
Navigation : 245 steamers and 104 sailing ships entered the harbours of
Herbertshöhe, Simpsonhafen, Kaewieng, Namatanai and Kieta (Bougainville) of the
Bismarck Archipelago, with 243,000 tons. Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen in Kaiser
Wilhelmsland 71 steamers, 84,000 tons. 1909 : 476 ships, 400,000 tons, 1911 576
ships, 431,000 tons, 1912 : 634 ships with 503,000 tons.
Post and Telegraph Services : by the end of 1913 : 14 offices, 2 of which
with telegraph service and local telephone service, 31 km overland telegraph
lines. 1912 : 324,000 letters, 9,866 postal money orders over 1,902,483 Mark,
5,137 parcels, 136,000 newspaper issues, 32 telegrams, 49,178 telephone calls.
Postal connection via Hongkong or Sydney every 4 weeks; via Singapore every 8
weeks. Period of delivery Berlin-Simpsonhafen (Rabaul) 44 to 48 days. To the
Karolinen twice all 16 weeks, to Jap via Hongkong respectively Sidney every 4
weeks. Period of delivery Berlin-Jap 38-60 days. Telegrams : telegraphically to
Jap or Nauru (Marshall Islands) or Sidney, from there on by mail, Telegram fee
per word to Jap 4.40 Mark, to Sidney 3,10 Mark, to Nauru 4.90 Mark. In addition
a radio telegraphic station at Bitapaka.
Administration : Seat of the Imperial Governor and district office :
Rabaul near Simpsonhafen (earlier Herbertshöhe). Governor for the time being
Dr.Hahl. Stations : Manus, Kaewieng, Namatanai, Kieta, Herbertshöhe. Other main
places : Matupi, Raluana and Muliama. Coloured police troop for all of Neuguinea
Size : About 179,000 square km (half of Prussia). Located on the large,
partially British (Australian) and Dutch island of New Guinea.
Population : The coloured population is estimated at over 300,000
(Melanesians or Papua, with many different, but related dialects. 300,000 in
Eitape, 20,000 in Morobe, 20,000 in Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen. Furthermore a
couple of hundred other coloureds (Chinese, Malays etc). The white population
1904 : 113 Europeans, among them 98 Germans, 1905 : 128 / 115, 1906 : 149 / 130,
1907 : 182 / 162, 38 adult women, 1908 not changed, 41 adult women, 1909 : 197 /
185 / 48, 1910 : 239 / 216 / (p.27) 63, 1911 : 290 / 260 / 75, 1912 : 290 / 260
/ 75, 1913 : 283 whites, of them 274 Germans anf 76 adult women.
Morphology and Hydrology : Along the 800 km long coast many coral reefs,
smaller islands and bays. The most important are the Huon Gulf and the Astrolabe
Bay. In the protectorate's north the Kaiserin-Auguste-River, navigable for
larger vessels for 400 km, with favourable estuary not blocked by reefs; its
larger tributaries, partially navigable, almost touch the Ramu system. The Gogol
River feeds into the Astrolabebai, the Markhamfluss into the Huon Gulf. The
largest river is the Ramu, which used to be called, in it's lower stretch,
Ottilien River. it is navigable for 200 km. Along the southern border the Waria
or Herkulesfluss. The interior is little explored. Between Huon Gulf and
Astrolabe Bay the Finisterre Mountains (3,475 m); between it and the coast a
coastal mountain range reaching 1,000 m altitude. In the interior the yet
unknown Kraetke Chain, further north the Bismarck Chain. According to newest
investigation between Bismarck-Chain and Finisterre Mountains a fertile, densely
Climate : tropical climate. Along the coast highest temperature in the
shadow 35 degrees Celsius, lowest 20 degrees, average annual temperature 26
degrees. Between April and September south east passate, from October to March
north west monsoon. Clear distinction between dry and rainy season in most years
not notable. The main rainy season depends on the fact, if the respective region
is more exposed to the passate or monsoon wind. Thus the rainy season, at
different places, sets in at different times.
Flora, Fauna, Minerals : see under Bismarck-Archipelago.
Trade and Transportation : main export articles : copra, trepang and
mother-of-pearl; recently rubber, hemp, cocoa; aldo bird-of-paradise bellows.
Values of imports and exports see table page 10.
Administration : Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen. Stations : Eitape, Angorum,
c. The Carolines,
Palau-Islands, Marianas and Marshall-Islands
Size : The island groups which previously have been a Spanish possession
have been acquired by purchase by the German Empire in June 1899. The Carolinas
have an area of 1,600 square km (of which the Palau islands 450 square km). The
Marianas have an area of 626 square km. The number od all these islands is 800.
The main islands of the Carolinas are : Kusaie, Ponape, Truk and Jap. The most
important island of the Palaus is Baobeltaob. The main Mariana Islands are
Saipan and Tinian. The Marshall Islands, consisting of the Ratak Group in the
east and the Ralik Group in the west, overall 353 islands, have an area of about
400 square km surface, slightly bigger than the Principality of
Population : whites 1911 : 289, of them 139 Germans and 44 women, 1912 :
325 whites, 1912 : 459 whites, of them 259 Germans and 75 adult women. Coloureds
on the western Carolinas, Palau and the Marianas 15,400, according to a census
undertaken in 1911.
Morphology And Hydrology : The highest peak is the Tolekole on Ponape,
Climate : average annual temperature 27 degrees. Rainy season on the
eastern islands June to September, on the western islands June to August. On the
Marshall Islands yearly 300 rainy days with 4,000 to 5,000 mm annual
Flora : The western islands have a richer flora than the eastern ones.
The coco palm is almost the only domesticated plant. Recently experiments with
rubber and cocoa.
Fauna : Of the mammals originally only bats. Imported were rats. A rich
avifauna, also many species of fish, few species of insects. Domesticated
animals : almost everywhere dog, cat and pig. On Tinian herds of wild cattle and
Minerals : On the Palau Islands profitable coal deposits. On Nauru,
Angaur and Feis rich phosphate deposits.
Trade and Transportation : Exported from all island groups mentioned :
copra, trepang, tortoise-shell, mother-of-pearl, nuts, shark's finns,
phosphates. Imported : textiles, tobacco, food, iron tools, alcohol etc. Values
of exports and imports see table on page 10.
Navigation : Besides ships under German flag the Marianas are visited by
British steamers, the Marshall Islands by Japanese sailing boats. 1909 the
eastern Carolinas were visited by 23 steamers with 11,500 tons, the western
Carolinas by 104 / 10,000 tons, the Marshall Islands by 13 with 7,000 tons. 1910
25 / 14,500 ; 119 / 97,000 ; 11 / 11,300. 1911 the eastern islands 96 steamers
with 144,000 tons, the western 111 / 117,000. 1912 : 313 ships with 456,000
Post & Telegraph Service : By the end of 1913 8 post offices, of them
three with telegraph service, postal connections twice every 16 weeks, delivery
Berlin-Jaluit 52-57 days, in addition Jap every 4 weeks and Angaur every 8 weeks
(Norddeutscher Lloyd), delivery to Jap 38-51 days, Angaur 53 days. Telegrams :
directly to Jap, Angaur or Nauru,to the other offices telegraphically to Jap or
Nauru (Marshall Islands) or Sydney, from there
delivered by mail. Fees for telegrams to Jap per word 4,40 Mk., to Angaur 4.90
M., to Sidney 3,10 M, to Jap 5,05 M. In addition 3 radio telegraphic stations at
Jap, Angaur and Nauru.
Administration : Seat of district administrations are : Ponape, Jap,
Jaluit; on Truk, Korror, Nauru and Garapan (Saipan) a station commander each.
The islands are placed under the governor in Rabaul.
2. The Samoa Islands (Navigator's Islands)
Size : Since Nov. 14th 1899 respectively March 1st 1900, the following
islands belong to the German protectorate of Samoa : Sawaii (1,691 square km),
Upolu (868 square km, seat of the government), Manono (8,5 square km), Apolima
(4,7 square km), total 2,572 square km (= the size of the Duchy of
Sachsen-Meiningen). The other islands of the Samoan group belong to the U.S.A.,
among them Tutuila with the excellent harbour of Pago-Pago; the German Samoan
Islands have no harbour; Apia is only an open roadsted.
Population : 1902 : 32,612 aborigines, 1906 : 33,478, 1911 : 33,554.
Europeans 1903 : 381, among these Germans 192, 1907 : 455 whites, among them 248
Germans, 117 women, 1908 : 436 / 262 / 78, 1909 : 468 / 270 / 112 ; 1910 : 473
whites, 1911 : 504 / 284 / 93 adult women, 1912 : 500 / 294 / 98, 1913 : 557 /
329 / 99. In addition a population of mixed descent, about 1025 heads, and 1,546
Morphology And Hydrology : Sawaii and Upolu are mountainous (highest peak
the Siope, 1,800 m) and volcanic. The rivers form many cascades, because of the
terrasse-shaped structure of the islands.
Climate : tropical (May to September southeast passate). Average annual
temperature 25,70 degrees Celsius. Samoa's climate is healthy.
Flora : lush vegetation; even steep cliffs are overgrown. Species of fern
are frequent. Cultivated plants : coco palm, cocoa (of excellent quality) and,
according to recent experiments, rubber.
Fauna : of the mammals originally only bats. Imported dogs and cats,
pigs, unfortunately also rats. Land and sea rich in lower life forms.
Trade and Transportation : Export mainly of copra and fruits, also Kawa
roots, and recently of cocoa, rubber and of a little tobacco. Import of consumer
goods and textiles, construction material, metal wares. Values of exports and
imports see table on page 10.
Navigation : On Apia's roadsted in 1907 were counted 88 steamers (only 1
of them German) and 31 sailing boats with a total of 59,000 tons. 1909 : 107 /
124,000 tons, 1910 : 118 / 112,000, 1911 : 109 (only 2 under German flag)/
124,000 tons, 1912 : 132 steamers wit 141,000 reg.tons and 1913 only 121
steamers with 84,000 reg.tons.
Post & Telegraph Service : End 1913 : 8 post offices, among them 1 with
local telephone service. 1912 : 267,100 letters, 5,417 postal money orders over
a total of 1,715,052 M., 1,948 parcels, 33,400 newspaper issues, 111,293
telephone calls. Mail delivery all 4 weeks, time of delivery Berlin-Apia 33
days. Telegrams : by telegraph to Auckland or Suva (Fiji Islands), from there
further by mail. Address as follows : Poste N.N., Apia, Auckland. Telegram fee
per word to Auckland and Suva 3,10 M. For some time now it is planned to connect
Deutsch-Neuguinea (Jap) and Samoa to the international telegraph cable network.
This will be done, not by cable, but by radio stations, on Jap, Nauru, Rabaul
and Apia presumably early in 1914, in Rabaul and Apia in 1914.
Administration : seat of the governor Apia on Upolu. Until 1911 Dr. Solf
was the governor; he is now under secretary of state in the Reichskolonialamt
(Colonial Office). His successor since 1912 Dr. Schultz. District office on
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Surveys and retrospects
by Dr. Karstedt. Berlin 1918, p.25ff.|
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Dokument in deutscher