Colonial Policy|| |
Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook),
edited by the German Colonial Society, 1918, Kiautschou
History : The territory of Kiautschou, located in the Chinese province of
Schantung, was occupied in the name of Germany by the landing detachment of the
cruiser squadron under the command of Vice Admiral von Diederichs on November
After a treaty with the Chinese government, signed March 6th 1898, ceded all
claims the Chinese government had within the area for a lease over 99 years, it
had been proclaimed, by Imperial edict of April 27th 1898, a German
Administratively the Protectorate of Kiautschou is placed under the
Reichs-Marine-Amt, while all other colonies are placed under the
Size : The protectorate includes the entire water body of Kiautschou Bay
up to the high water mark, furthermore the northern and southern promontory at
it's inlet up to suitable ridges (46,6 respectively 461,5 square km), as well
as the islands located within the bay and in the sea off the bay (43,6 square
km). The total land area amounts to 551,7 square km (roughly the size of
Hamburg). In addition a zone has been established within which the Chinese
government cannot implement any reform without German approval; the border of
this line is 50 km distant from the protectorate; this zone covers roughly 1/2
the Kingdom of Saxony.
Population : According to the last census undertaken in 1910 34,180
Chinese live within the city limits of Tsingtau (in the years 1911 to 1913,
because of the revolution, many Chinese have immigrated, so that the census in
July 1913 counted 55,312 (an increase of 56 %) and (except military personnel)
2,069 Europeans in 1913. Another 1,621 Europeans in 1910, as compared to 1,531
in the year 1907. To these, a number of Japanese have to be added.
The population of the rural district earlier has been estimated at 100,000, but
it is at least 161,000; the population of the 50 km zone is unknown. Including
military personnel and the population living on water, the city of Tsingtau has
a population of over 60,000.
Morphology And Hydrology : On the northern promontory the Lan-Schan, up
to 1,130 m high. Almost the entire peninsula of Schantung is covered by a 600 km
long mountain range; it is separated from China's other mountain chains by a
large plain, and by another plain connecting Kiautschou Bay with the Gulf of
Tschili it is separated in two. The protectorate lacks navigable rivers. The
hinterland borders on the Hwangho.
Climate : Highest temperatures 33 degrees Celsius, lowest minus 11
degrees Celsius. Average annual rainfall over 500 mm.
Flora : Cultivated plants : grain, beans, potatos, tobacco, fruit trees,
also cotton. Forests, because of Chinese maladministration, destroyed. The
Germans reforest the area near Tsingtau; the Chinese learn reforestation.
Fauna : The Kiautschou area has few animals. In spring and autumn many
migratory waterfowl pass by. Attempts to introduce European domesticated animals
failed so far. Cattle raised here are also exported.
Minerals : The Schantung-Bergbau-Gesellschaft (Shandong Mining Company)
began to work the Wei-hsien coal deposit on October 1st 1902. The first coal
train arrived in Tsingtau on October 30th 1902. Ever since, the exploitation of
the Wei-hsien coal field progresses at the pit Fang-Tse. For the processing of
the coal, a mechanical separation apparatus has been established. A second pit,
Minna Schacht, located ca. 70 m distant from Fang-tse, has been opened. Work on
the establishment of a second main hauling pit, Annie Schacht close to the
station of Fang-tse has begun in 1904. In the coal field of Po-schan the
establishment of a pit (Tse-tschwan Schacht) was begun this summer. The coal is
partially suited for steamer fuelling. However, the enterprise was unprofitable
and has been taken over by the Schantung Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft (Shandong
In addition iron ore has been found; the exploitation will be begun soon.
Trade And Transportation : a large port with piers, swimming dock
(capacity 16,000 tons) and shipyard facilities is, for the larger part,
completed. The railway reaching from Tsingtau inland connects to the coal fields
of the Schantung-Bergbau-Gesellschaft near Wei-hsien and Po-schan and further
until Tsinan-fu (435 km). The first train arrived at Tsinan-fu on February 23rd
1904. The entire line, including the branch lline to Po-schan valley, operates
since July 1st 1904. Tsinan-fu is located along the line Tientsin-Pu-kou.
The hinterland produces many important products for the export to Europe,
especially baskets etc., peanut oil, brushes, silk pongees. More than 80 % of
the imports are delivered by railway into the interior. The free port, which
hitherto covered the entire protectorate (p.31), has been limited by agreement
with the Chinese government of January 1st 1906 to the port and an adjacent
stretch of land. The remaining territory, for the purpose of simpler trade, has
been attached to Chinese customs territory.
Total export from Oct. 1st 1903 to Oct. 1st 1904 about 14,7 million Mark.
1904/05 about 20 million M., 1905/06 about 23,5 million M., 1906/1907 over 34
million M., 1907/08 : 32,5 million M., 1908/09 : 47,5 million M., 1910/11 :
about 64,6 million M., 1911/12 : ca. 74 million M. Total import of goods on
non-Chinese origin (without railway and mining equipment) 1903/04 : about 24
million M., 1904/05 about 37 million, 1905/06 : over 50 million, 1906/07 : over
61,5 million, 1907/08 : 38 million, 1908/09 : 45,8 million, 1910/11 : about 56
million, 1911/12 : about 62 million. Total import of goods of Chinese origin
1904/05 : over 12 million, 1905/06 : over 15 million, 1906/07 : almost 21
million, 1907/08 : 17,5 million, 1908/09 : 23,7 million, 1909/10 : 25,9
Millionen, 1910/11 : 28,7 million, 1911/12 : about 44 million Mark. According to
the Chinese maritime customs statistical table, the import of goods of
non-Chinese origin - except railway and mining equipment - amounted to
41,893,683 Dollars, as comnpared to 30,902,219 Dollars in 1912. The import of
goods of Chinese origin decreased; the figure was 15,301,081 Dollars (as
compared to 22,064,745 Dollars in the previous year). This has, except the
political situation, to be explained with the lower prices for certain goods as
compared to the previous year. The export amounted to 37,566,540 Dollars (as
compared to 37,002,456 Dollars the year before). Total trade thus amounted to
94,761,304 Dollars, as compared to 89,979,420 Dollars the previous year. The
most prominent import articles are cotton products and cotton yarn, petrol,
anilin dyes, paper, sugar, matches, metals, railway construction material.
Exported are mainly straw products, peanut oil, peanuts, silk and silk pongees,
cotton, beans, skin, slaughtered animals, fruit etc.
Navigation : In 1906/07 498 steamers with a total storage of 547,000 tons
entered the port of Tsingtau. 1907/08 432 (of which 211 German) with 520,000
tons, 1908/09 511/263/670,000, 1909/10 : 568/807,000; 1910/11 : 590 / 1,026,000;
1911/12 : 727 / 1,136,000 tons.
Post & Telegraph Service : by the end of 1913 : 10 postal offices, 8
of which with telegraph service and 2 with local telephone service. 37 km
overland telegraph lines; 1160 km underwater cables. 1911 2,326,300 letters were
delivered, 23,472 postal money orders over a total sum of 966,996 M., 40,168
parcels, 240,769 newspaper issues, 97,430 telegrams, 1,149,469 telephone calls.
Postal connection three times a week, delivery via the Suez Canal 33-36 days,
via Siberia 14-15 days. Telegram fee per word 3,65 M. In addition a radio
telegraphic station near Tsingtau.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Surveys and retrospects
by Dr. Karstedt. Berlin 1918, p.30f|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher