Radetzky - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries



Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Meyer 1902-1909,


Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Radetzky (1915)
Radetzky, Johann Joseph Wenzel Anton Franz Karl, Count de Radetz, Austrian field marshall, born in 1766 in Bohemia, died in 1858 in Milan, joined a curassier regiment as cadet in 1784, was promoted to officer in 1786. As ordinnance under field marshall Lacy he learned his first lessons in the war against Turkey in 1788-1789. After having fought on the Rhine and in the Netherlands in 1792-1795, Radetzky in 1796 in Italy established a battalion of pioneers, of which he became major. In 1799 he was promoted major and after the Battle of Marengo (1800) was given the command over a regiment of curassiers. In 1805 as major general Radetzky lead a brigade of light cavalry in Italy. During the campaign of 1809 he was appointed lieutenant field marshal and at the helm of a division with the 4th army corps (Rosenberg) he fought with distinction on the left wing at Wagram. Thereafter he was appointed chief of staff and followed Schwarzenberg in this function in the campaign of 1813-1815. After having served as commanding officer in part in Hungary, in part, since 1821, as commander of the fortress of Olmütz, in 1831 Radetzky was placed in command of the Austrian army in Italy and in 1836 was appointed field marshall. As supreme commander in Italy he was given the opportunity to show his great capability. Seeing the approaching storm, Radetzky paid his full attention on the training of the troops and on raising their spirit, while he promoted the construction of fortresses. When war broke out in 1848, Radetzky was ready. The campaign of 1848 and 1849 is proof for how skilled and planned the old field marshall understood to organize his conduct of the war. By victories at Santa Lucia (May 6th 1848) and Curtatone (May 29th), the taking of Vicenza (June 11th) and Palmanuova (June 25th), the victories at Custozza (July 23rd to 25th) and Novara (March 23rd 1849) and by forcing Venice into submission, Austria's position in Italy, for a while, was secured. As governor general and military commander until 1857 in Austrian Italy, he ruled with great severity.
Radetzky is buried in Wetzdorf (in Lower Austria). In Prague in 1858 a monument to him was raised (by the brothers Max)(, in Vienna in 1893 a statue of him on horseback (by Zumbusch).
See biographies on Radetzki by Trubetzkoi (1860), Kunz (1890), H. von der Sann (1906) och Radetzki's letters to his daughter, edited in 1892.

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Radetzky
Radetzky, Johann Joseph Wenzel Anton Franz Karl, Count, Austrian field marshall, born on November 2bd 1766 on his family's castle Trzebnitz in the Bohemian district of Tabor, died on January 5th 1858 in Milan, from a Bohemian noble family, Radetzky von Radetz, which was elevated to the status of counts in 1764; he was the son of Peter Eusebius Count Radetzky (born 1732, died 1776) and of his second wife, Maria Venantia Bechine von Lazan. Educated in the Theresianum 1781-1784, in 1784 he joined the 2nd curassier regiment as a cadet in 1784 (today 2nd dragoon regiment) and in 1788-1789 as an orderly of Lacy participated in the war against the Turks, 1793-1796 in the wars in the Netherlands and in Upper Italy. Since 1796 he was the orderly of quartermaster Beaulieu, the supreme commander of the Italian army, and since 1799 the orderly of the former's successor Melas. After having fought with distinction in the Battles at the Trebbia and near Novi, on November 5th that year he was promoted major. After the Battle of Marengo, in which he distinguished himself by courage and prudence, he was transferred tohe army in Germany and was given command over the 3rd curassier regiment, at the helm of which on December 3rd 1800 at Hohenlinden he fought gloriously. From 1801 to 1806 he and his regiment were stationed in Ödenburg [Sopron]; on September 1st 1806 he was promoted to major general, then came as brigadeer general to the Italian army, fought at the end of 1807 in Upper Styria against Massena, from February 1808 on stayed for a while in Vienna, then was ordered to the 5th army corps under Archduke Karl in 1809, fought gloriously in many skirmishes in Bavaria, Upper and Lower Austria, was promoted lieutenant field marshall and troop divisionary with the 4th army corps, participated in the Battle of Wagram. In 1813 appointer quartermaster general and appointed court military counselor, he successfully reorganized the Austrian armed forces, dispatched Austrian officers into foreign countries to report on military installations and political conditions, served as Schwarzenberg's chief of staff 1813-1814 near Kulm, Leipzig and La Rohiere, participated (March 31st 1814) in the entry into Paris, where he was awarded the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle, first class, and after the Peace of Paris, the Austrian Army Cross of Honour. In 1815 chief of staff of the Upper Rhenish Army, participated in the Vienna Congress. In the following years he commanded as cavalry divisionary first in Ödenburg, then in Ofen [Buda], from 1821 to 1828 was adlatus of commander Archduke Ferdinand in Buda, in 1829 he was promoted to general of the cavalry and fortress commander of Olmütz. From therein February 1831 ordered to Italy, in November he took supreme command in Frimont's place, over the Austrian force (109,000 men). In 1833 his field instruction was published, in 1834 his manoeuver instruction for all branches of the armed forces, and simultaneously he conducted the famous fall manoeuvers, which which attracted officers from many countries. In 1836 he was promoted to field marshall. When the Italian movement of 1848 broke out, he tried to suppress by force the rebellion in Milan on March 18th, but after 5 days of street fighting in the night of March 23rd he withdrew to Verona. Only after the arrival of reinforcement he advanced from Verona, at Santa Lucia (May 6th) he defeated the Sardinians, after a bold flank march near Mantua he crossed the Mincio. Now the victories of Curtatone (May 29th), the surrender of Peschiera (May 31st), the taking of Vicenza (June 11th), of the fortress Palmanuova (June 25th), from July 23rd to 26th the victories at Sommacampagna, Custozza and Volta followed, which completely destroyed the Piemontese army. Radetzky entered Milan on August 6th. On August 9th he granted a truce to the enemy, in which the latter had to hand over all places in Lombardy he still held occupied. On March 10th 1849 Carlo Alberto cancel;led the truce; Radetzky on March 20th crossed the Ticino and on the 23rd won the decisive victory over the Piemontese at Novara, which secured Austrian rule in Upper Italy for some time. On March 26th Radetzky and the new King Vittorio Emmanuele concluded a truce, in consequence of which Radetzky on March 28th entered Milan. After also Venice surrendered in August, after a long siege, Radetzky from 1850 to 1856 as commander of the 2nd Army, and as governor general of the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom upheld law and order with energetic severity. He lived in Verona and only occasionally visited Vienna, last in April 1854 on the occasion of the Emperor's marriage. The owner of Neumarkt in Carniola and of Rzidko in Bohemia, in 1852 by decision of the estates of Carniola he was also entrusted the estate Thun near Laibach for lifetime. On February 28th 1857, after 72 years of service, decorated with 46 European orders, by the people called "Duke of Custozza", retired, he died in the villa reale in Milan and ha been buried in Parkfriede Mausoleum in Wetzdorf near Vienna. He was married to Countess Franziska Strassoldo-Gräfenberg, with whom he had 8 children, of whom except for one daughter only one son, Theodor Konstantin, survived, general major (died 1878), who alone continued the family line. In Prague in 1858 a monument to him was erected, made from Sardinian cannon taken during the war, and in 1892 in Vienna a monument showing Radetzky on a horse (by Zumbusch).
See : Strack, Graf Radetzky (Wien 1849); Schneidawind, Feldmarschall Graf Radetzky (Augsburg 1851); (Schönhals) Der Feldmarschall Graf Radetzky (Stuttgart 1858); Feldmarschall Graf Radetzky, sein Leben und seine Taten, bearbeitet von Anton Freiherrn von Gavenda und Franz de Vuko et Branco (Prag 1858); Denkschriften militärischen Inhalts aus dem Nachlass Radetzkys (Prag. 1858); Trubetzkoi. Campagnes du Feldmarechal comte Radetzky dans le nord de l'Italie en 1848 et 1849 (new ed., Leipzig 1860); H. Kunz, Die Feldzüge des Feldmarschalls Radetzky in Oberitalien 1848 und 1849 (Berlin 1890); Graf Schönfeld, Erinnerungen eines Ordonnanzoffiziers Radetzkys (Wien 1904); further biogra[hic publications by K. v. Duncker, Smolle, Krones (all Wien 1891), Hans von der Sann (J. Krainz, Graz 1906) and others. Memories after Radetzky's and Graf Thuns notes (until 1813) are published in Mitteilungen des k. k. Kriegsarchivs, vol. 1 (Wien 1887); Briefe des Feldmarschalls Radetzky an seine Tochter Friederike 1847?1857 were edited by Duhr (Wien. 1892).

source in German, posted by Zeno





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