Schwarzenberg - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Meyer 1902-1909,

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Schwarzenberg (1916)
Felix Ludwig Johann Prince Schwarzenberg, nephew of the former, Austrian statesman, born on October 2nd 1800, died on April 5th 1852, was first a military officer, later entered the diplomatic career. His forst posts abroad he had to leave because of peculiar matters : Petersburg 1826 because of involvement in the Decabrist upproar, Lisbon 1828 because he was stoned by the populace, London 1831 because of an amorous affair. In 1838 he became ambassador in Parma and Turin, in 1844 in Naples. When unrest broke out there in March 1848, the population took to violent action at the residence of the Austrian minister, as they saw in him an influential spokesperson of a reactionary policy. Schwarzenberg left his post, fought as brigadeer general in Northern Italy and was promoted to lieutenant field marshal. After his brother-in-law Windischgrätz forcefully suppressed the revolution in Vienna, Schwarzenberg was placed at the head of the new government (November 22nd 1848). Schwarzenberg was, as his closest confidant said, "a cold, iron-hard inflexible soul, a man of steel". With life and soul he was a man of absolutism, "the deepest flaw in his character was that he despised the living forces in the people and that he misunderstood all what came up from the depth" (Friedjung). He saved no means when it came to restoring the damaged authority of the state. Without qualms he suppressed the Hungarian Revolution and unrest in other parts of the country. While a large part of the country was under military dictatorship, he implemented a number of reforms, in state administration, jurisdiction, finances, by a specially important agricultural law etc. Austria regained in comparatively short time its former strength and again could appear as the leading power in Germany and Central Europe. Prussia was forced to give up its "union policy" (1850). Schwarzenberg thereafter regarded himself strong enough (1851) to suspend the constitution, which had been adopted in 1849, but which never had taken force, thus beginning a long era of reaction.
See : Berger, Felix, Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (1853), Friedjung, *Ouml;sterreich von 1848 bis 1860 (I, II : 1; 2 vols, 1908, 1912).

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Schwarzenberg
Schwarzenberg, Felix Prince von, Austrian statesman, born on October 2nd 1800 in Krumau, died on April 5th 1852 in Vienna, second son of Prince Joseph von Schwarzenberg (died 1833), in 1818 joined the army as cadet, in 1824 switched over to a diplomatic career. Entrusted with a diplomatic mission to London in 1826, after having committed adultery with Lady Ellenborough, in 1827 he departed with Baron Neumann from there to Brazil. After his return he was employed with various embassies, and finally accredited as ambassador at the court of Naples in 1846. When he was insulted during a tumult at his hotel, he resigned and, as major general, was given command over a brigade under Nugent in Upper Italy. He fought at Curtatone and Goito, rose to lieutenant field marshal. After the suppression of the October Revolution in Vienna on November 22nd 1848 he was appointed cabinet chief. He planned a unitary Austria governed in military-absolutist style, but strengthened by reforms, and elevated to the leading power in Germany and central Europe. Without qualms, energetic and not picky in the choice of his means, he quickly achieved important successes. With the alliance with Russia he defeated the Hungarian Revolution, the utter failure of Prussia's policy in Germany, he tied the German medium-size states again closely to Austria, restored the German Federation and forced upon Prussia the humiliation of Olmütz. Only the entry of all of Austria into the Federation ("the Empire of 70 million", which he planned) and into the Zollverein he failed to achieve.
See : Berger, Felix F?rst zu Schwarzenberg, (Leipzig 1853), and the article Schwarzenberg by Zeissberg in Allgemeine Deutschen Biographie, vol. 33 (Leipzig 1891).

source in German, posted by Zeno; scroll down for (4)


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First posted on August 2nd 2009

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