Henry Wellington Wack
The Story of the Congo Free State
New York & London : Putnam 1905



The Treaty of Leopoldville, April 29th, 1883 (pp.489-490)


We, the undersigned, chiefs of the district of N'Kamo, of Kuiswangi, of Kimpe, and of all the districts extending from the river Congo to Leopoldville and to Ntamo, up to the river Lutess and the mountains of Sama Sankori, have resolved to put ourselves, as well as our heirs and descendants, under the protection and patronage of the Comite d'Etudes of the Upper Congo, and to give power to it's representative at Miamo to regulate all disputes and conflicts that may arise between us and foreigners of whatsoever colour, residing out of the district or territory of N'Kamo, in order to prevent strangers, animated by wicked intentions or ignorant of our customs, from exciting embarrassments or endangering the peace and security and independence which we now enjoy.
By the present act we resolve to adopt the flag of the Comite d'Etudes of the Upper Congo, as a sign for each and all of us that we are under it's sole protection.
We also solemnly and truly declare that this is the only contract we have ever made, and that we will never make any contract with any European or African, without the concurrence and agreement of the Comite d'Etudes of the Upper ComnĒŲ.
To the above resolution we freely put our marks.
.......... Ngaliema, his X mark.
.......... Makari, his X mark.
.......... Numbi, his X mark.
.......... Munwale, his X mark.
.......... Nyasko, his X mark.








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