Anglo-Scottish War, 1513



A.) Prehistory

King Henry VIII., angered by Scottish cross-border raids into England, wanted to force the recognition of his sovereignty over Scotland.


B.) The War

On Nov. 24th 1542, an English army defeated the Scottish forces in the Battle of Solway Moss. King James V. died shortlu after. He was succeeded by his daughter Mary, less than a week old. King Henry VIII. of England was determined to secure Scotland by arranging a marriage between his son Edward and the infant Queen, and negotiations to that effect were held with the Regent of Scotland. However, Marie de Guise, Queen mother, undermined these negotiations by removing her child to a secure location. Henry VIII., retailated by sending an invading force into Scotland. The lowlands and capital Edinburgh suffered most, were looted and burnt in the summer of 1544. In 1545 Scotland's troubles only increased when Donald Dubh lead a rising of the MacDonald and MacLean clans in the western Isles. After his death later that year, the rebels quarreled, the rebellion flared down. King Henry VIII. died in 1547. Another English army sent into Scotland by the Duke of Somerset defeated the Scottish army under Regent Arran in the Battle of Pinkie Cleigh 1547. The Scottish situation being desparate, the betrothal of infant Queen Mary to Henri, Dauphin of France, was arranged; in 1548 Mary was escorted to France. With the Scottish-French alliance (Auld Alliance) restored, Scotland in 1549 negotiated a peace treaty on the basis of the status quo ante.


C.) The Legacy

The lack of a King/Queen capable of ruling, for several decades, permitted the Reformation to make inroads to Scotland. Scotland had escaped, for the moment, the acquisitive ambitions of the Tudor Kings.




EXTERNAL
FILES
Battle of Pinkie 1547, from Sgian Dhu Interactive Clans and Tartans of Scotland Website
Battle of Pinkie 1547 Home Page
Pinkie Battlefield, from Gazetteer for Scotland
The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh 1547 : The English Military, from about.com; see subsequent pages for Scottish military
Solway Moss, Nov. 24 1542, posted by Tudor Place
Biography of James V. of Scotland, from Wikipedia
James V., Mary Queen of Scots, from Kings and Queens of Scotland
Timeline Scotland in the 1500s, from Royal Stuarts
Biography of James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, Regent of Scotland 1542-1554, from encyclopedia.com
DOCUMENTS
REFERENCE Fitzroy MacLean, Scotland : a Concise History, London : Thames and Hudson, 1993



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 9th 2003, last revised on November 17th 2004

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