Carafa War, 1556-1557

A.) Causes for the War

In 1555, Gian Pietro Carafa, since 1549 Archbishop of Naples, was elected pope and took on the name Paul IV. (1555-1559). He opposed the Religious Peace of Augsburg 1555 and, on the abdication of Emperor Charles V. in 1556, saw the opportunity to liberate his native Naples from Spanish Habsburg rule. As Valois France and Habsburg Spain were at war since 1551 (Franco-Spanish War 1551-1559), Paul IV. allied himself with French King Henri II., who sent troops to aid in the campaign.

B.) The War

The Spanish, commanded by the Duke of Alva, Viceroy of Naples, were victorious; the French forces withdrew, the Papal State was occupied by the Spanish, and Pope Paul IV. had to accept the conditions of the Peace of Cave-Palestrina 1557.

C.) The Legacy

France in the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis accepted Spanish Habsburg rule in Naples.

Article Paul IV., from Wikipedia, in German, from BBKL, in German
Italia Anno 1556, from Cronologia, in Italian; for 1557 scroll down
Duque de Alba, from Hispanos Famosos, in English
DOCUMENTS Statue of the Duke of Alba, 1571, from
REFERENCE Thomas J. Dandelet, Politics and the state system after the Habsburg-Valois Wars, pp.11-30 in : John A. Marino (ed.), Early Modern Italy (Short Oxford History of Italy), Oxford : UP 2002

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on February 10th 2004, last revised on November 17th 2004

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