Franco-Habsburg War, 1521-1529

A.) Causes for the War

Also referred to as the Franco-Spanish War. Continued conflict between the Habsburg and Valois Dynasties, over territory in Italy (mainly Milan) and elsewhere (Navarra, Burgundy). Emperor Charles V. was angered about French support for the Comuneros Revolt in Castile 1520-1521and Francis' 1519 bid for the Imperial crown. The Emperor was supported by the Papal State, Florence and Mantua.

B.) The War

A French force invaded Upper Navarra and took the Navarrese capital of Pamplona (1521; during the siege, Ignatius of Loyola, later the founder of the Jesuit Order, was injured by a cannon ball). Still in 1521, the French suffered a defeat at the hands of the Spanish in the Battle of Pamplona. Imperial troops took Milan in 1522, defeated the French in the Battle of Bicocca 1522, took hitherto French-held Genoa later that year and in 1524 invaded the Provence (French since 1483). King Francis I. of France then lead an army into Italy, but suffered a decisive defeat in the Battle of Pavia Feb. 24th 1525 and was taken prisoner. He was compelled to sign the treaty of Madrid, in which he renounced French claims on Upper Navarra and Milan and, in addition, ceded the Duchy of Burgundy.
After his release, he violated his traety obligations, and resumed the war against the Emperor. However, Imperial troops held on to Milan and to Navarra.
In 1526, Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) dared to join the League of Cognac, allying himself with France and Venice against the Emperor. Imperial troops in 1527 sacked Rome (Sacco di Roma, an event treated in a separate file. The Medici, relatives of Pope Clement VII., were ousted a second time from Florence.
In 1529 the Treaty of Cambrai was signed, in which Francis again renounced his claim on Upper Navarra, Naples and Milan, but held on to the Duchy of Burgundy.

C.) The Legacy

Relations between the Habsburg Dynasty and France did not improve; France supported every enemy of the Habsburgs.

Article Spain 1521-1567, from Encyclopedia of World History
Biography of Francis I., from Catholic Encyclopedia
Articles Pavia V, Frans I., La Bicocca and Karl V., from Historiske Slag, in Danish
Treaties of Barcelona, Cambrai 1529, from UAlberta History 209
End of Navarre's Kingdom, from Basque People's History, scroll down

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 3rd 2003, last revised on November 17th 2004

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