Spanish Capture of Oran 1509

Oran had a large population of refugees from Spain, both Muslims and Jews, and traditionally had strong trade connections with what used to be Muslimic Spain.
In 1505 a Spanish expedition, equipped by Cardinal Ximenes (Jimenes) de Cisneros, took Mers el Kebir; in 1509 a second expedition, again equipped by Cardinal Xisneros and commanded by Pedro Navarro, took Oran. Upon the conquest the Spaniards levelled the city, massacred 4,000 and took 8,000 prisoners. The most formidable mosques were consecrated as churches, hospitals or convents. The ruler of Tlemcen agreed to become a Spanish vassall in 1510.
Economically, the conquest of Oran proved a burden to Cardinal Ximenes; he tried to recover his expenses from the King Ferdinand of Aragon; Cardinal Ximenes died in 1517.
Oran was intended to become the key for the control of western Algeria (l'Oranie); from here, several expeditions into the interior were undertaken, which were unsuccessful, most notably the expedition against Tlemcen in 1543; Spanish rule was limited to the port city and her environs. The Spanish would hold on to Oran until 1708 and again from 1732 to 1792.

Oran the Marvellous, has brief history, coat of arms
Article Oran, from Wikipedia
Oran, from Samtig, in French
Wilaya d'Oran, from Univ. Oran, in French
Oran, by Djamilo, in French
Diocese of Oran, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Histoire des Juifs d'Oran (History of the Jews of Oran), from Zlabia, in French
Biography Francisco Ximenes de Cisneros, from The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, from EB 1911
Article Pedro Navarro, from EB 1911
Den udenrigspolitiske ekspansion - skabelsen af en stormagt (Foreign Expansion - Creation of a Great Power), from Spanien under "Los Reyes Catolicos", in Danish
Africa and the Middle East 1300-1615, by Sanderson Beck
Algeria, Tunisia and Libya 1504-1569, from Encyclopedia of World History
DOCUMENTS List of Spanish governors of Oran, from World Statesmen

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 9th 2004, last revised on November 17th 2004

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