Conflict over Emden, 1602-1603

In the 1580es, Spanish conquests of Brabant and Flanders cities in the early stage of the Dutch Revolt caused a stream of Calvinist refugees to flee the Netherlands; c.6,000 of them settled in the city of Emden in the 1570s to 1600s. In 1617, Emden had c. 16,000-17,000 inhabitants.
(East Frisia). In the 1590es there was dissent between the Count and Emden city Council, the Count having complained with the Emperor about Emden disobedience, and having achieved a mandate in his favour. Calvinist preacher Menso Alting stirred up the Emden burghers. In 1595 the city of Emden declared herself independent of the Count of East Frisia. An Emden militia was formed spontaneously, the walls were manned. The count's castle in Emden was razed to the ground. Both the city of Emden and Count Edzard II. appealed for Dutch support; the Dutch Republic decided for the city and laid a garrison into Emden. On July 15th 1595, Count Edzard II. (-1599) and the city of Emden concluded the Treaty of Delfzijl, which confirmed the autonomous status of Emden, in 1597 confirmed by Emperor Rudolf II.
In 1602 troops of Count Enno III. Cirksena of Ostfriesland (East Frisia) laid siege to Emden, without success; On April 8th 1603 he had to sign the Treaty of 's-Gravenhage in which he not only accepted the presence of a Dutch garrison in Emden, but agreed to pay the costs for the Dutch garrison.
In 1609 the conflict broke out again; the Emders were victorious in a skirmish at Greetsiel and temporarily occupied the Count's residence at Aurich. In 1611 the Dutch laid a garrison into Leerort. On May 24th the Accord of Osterhusen was signed, which limited the sovereignty of the Count of East Frisia, stated the rights of the Estates (including Emden) and legitimated the Dutch garrison in Leerort.
While nominally remaining under the authority of the Counts of East Frisia, until 1744 (when the county was added to the possessions of the King in Prussia) the city of Emden enjoyed a quasi-independent status. The Dutch garrison left in 1744.

Article Oost-Friesland, from Wikipedia, in Dutch
Emden in der Neuzeit, from Historisches Handdbuch der Jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, in German
Article Emden, from EB 1911
Die Emder Revolution vom 18. 03. 1595, from Landesmuseum Emden, in German
Zeittafel Geschichte der Stadt Emden, from Städte Seiten, in German
Marron C. Fort, Die Tradition des Niederländischen in Ostfriesland, from Einblicke Nr.26, in German
Die Geschichte der ostfriesischen Halbinsel (History of the East Frisian Peninsula), from Genealogie Forum, in German
DOCUMENTS Flag of Emden, from FOTW

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 23rd 2004, last revised on November 19th 2004

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