War of Gradisca, between Austria and Venice, 1615-1617
In German known as "Friauler Krieg" (Friulian War)

The Uskoks were Croatians, inhabitants of the Habsburg lands bordering on the Ottoman Empire. Exposed to episodical Ottoman raids, they adopted to a policy of retaliation in a similar manner. The Uskoks of Zengg (Habsburg Croatia) developed the strategy of raiding ships, Venetian ships being the targets in most cases. The Republic of Venice, because of her support of the Ottoman Empire during the Ottoman siege of Klis (Clissa) 1596 - a major Uskok fortress, until her fall - was regarded an enemy, her ships legitimate targets.
A Venetian campaign against the Uskoks from 1613 onward, in 1615 lead to War with Austria (1615), limited to the regions of (Venetian) Friulia, (Austrian) Gradisca and Gorizia, and (partially Venetian, partially Austrian) Istria, was terminated by the Treaty concluded in Paris Sept. 27th 1617 and ratified at Madrid. Militarily, the Venetians had the upper hand; the city of Gradisca had been besieged by them (1616-1617), and saved from falling by Albrecht Eusebius von Wallenstein, who had equipped 200 cavalrymen out of his own pocket. Francesco Erizzo was commander of the Venetian troops during the siege of Gradisca, since June 18th; in 1631 he would be elected doge of the Republic. The Imperial forces were commanded by Archduke Ferdinand of Styria. Karl von Harrach negotiated the peace treaty in the name of the Emperor. The war had caused great damage in the areas affected.
The Uskoks were resettled in the interior, their ships burnt.

Venice's Timeline, from Italy Weekly, from Venice Banana
History Venice Republic : Renaissance, from Veneto.org
The Uskok ¡°Problem¡± and Habsburg, Venetian, and Ottoman Relations at the Turn of the Seventeenth Century, by Ruth Simon
Le Guerre di Venezia contro l'Austria e li Turchi 1575-1699, from Cronologia, in Italian
Mariano del Friuli, from Nei Suoni dei Luoghi, text in English
Biographie Wallenstein, from Wer war wer im Dreissigjährigen Krieg ?, in German
History of Istria, the Modern Era
Biography Karl von Harrach, from Wer war wer im Dreissigjährigen Krieg, in German
Biography Ferdinand II., in Wer war wer im Dreissigjährigen Krieg ?, in German

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 14th 2004, last revised on November 19th 2004

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