Hugo Grotius

Biography : (in Dutch : Hugo de Groot, Huig de Groot) Born into a Calvinist family in Delft in 1583; began his studies at the University of Leiden age 12 in 1594, graduated in 1598. Was introduced to King Henri IV. of France; was promoted doctor of laws at Univ. of Orleans in 1599. Sworn in as advocate (lawyer) in Holland; in 1604 appointed historiographer by the Province of Holland; married in 1608 into influential family; 1613 entered city council of Rotterdam. Became a Remonstrant (Arminian); in connection with the suppression of Arminianism, in 1618 Grotius was arrested, in 1619 tried of treason and incarcerated at Loevestein. In prison he wrote Inleiding tot de Hollandsche Rechtsgeleertheyd (1620); managed to escape to Paris in 1621. In 1631-1632 he briefly stayed in Holland, but had to flee again. Stayed in Germany the following three years. From 1635 to 1645 he was Swedish ambassador in Paris. Died in 1645 in Paris.

List of publications

1604 . . De Jure Praedae (On the Law of Prize and Booty)
1609 . . Mare Liberum (Freedom of the Seas)
1613 . . Ordinum Pietas (On Obligations to the Fatherland)
1620 . . Inleiding tot de Hollandsche Rechtsgeleertheyd (Introduction to the Jurisprudence of Holland)
1622 . . Declaration en français de M. de Groot, expliquant les raisons de son arriv? en France, donnant copie d'une lettre, adresse par lui aux Etats generaux... le 30 mars 1621
1625 . . De Jure Belli ac Pacis (On the Law of War and Peace)
1626 . . Excerpta ex tragoediis et comediis graecis .. (Excerpts of Greek Tragedies and Comedies)
1662 . . Annales et histoires des troubles du Pays-Bas (Annals of the History of the Troubles of the Low Countries, published posthumously)

His Introduction to the Jurisprudence of Holland, until the Code Napoleon was introduced in 1809, formed the foundation of Dutch law. His Freedom of the Seas and On the Law of War and Peace are regarded cornerstones of international law.

Article Huig de Groot, from Phil. 302 at Oregon State
Hugo Grotius, from Die Philosophie-Seiten, in German
"The Miracle of Holland" Hugo Grotius: Naturalist, Eclectic, or Theonomist ?, by William Greene
Hugo Grotius, from Univ. Saarbrücken, in German
Article Hugo Grotius, from Columbia Encyclopedia
Article Hugo Grotius, from The History of Economic Thought
Grotius and the Socioeconomic Development of the United Provinces around 1600, by Peter Lowensteyn
DOCUMENTS Hugo Grotius, On the Law of War and Peace (De jure belli et pacis), trsl. by Wei Wilson Chen
Hugo Grotius, On the origin of the native races of America, posted by Canadiana, trsl. of 1884

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on September 11th 2003, last revised on November 14th 2004

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