Restauration, 1815-1848
Ban on Clubs and Societies






Liberalization of State Control



The Carlsbad Resolutions of 1819 had established respectively intensified state control in form of press censorship, secret police and a ban of clubs and societies. Severe state suppression in the early 19th century had proven ineffective, had caused emigration and two waves of revolutions (1830, 1848). Moreover, state suppression was an obstacle to economic development.
Initially, in Prussia, even organized sport fell under the ban; only in 1837 was the ban on sports clubs lifted, and gymnastics included in the school curriculum.
After 1848, in Prussia, Austria etc., state control was somewhat liberalized. The formation of clubs and societies was no longer banned, but was subject to state supervision; clubs and societies were to be formally registered; meetings were to be attended by a policeman who had to file a report. Clubs and societies dealing with a wide range of activities mushroomed. From the 1860es on, even political parties were formed.
By contrast, Russia stuck to her policy of strict government control. The Russian Empire, in the 1870es, saw the climax of anarchist activity, culminating in the assassnation of Czar Alexander II. in 1881.




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This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on November 1st 2003, last revised on November 16th 2004

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