Habsburg-Papal Relations

Habsburg-Valois Relations

A.) Franco-Spanish Relations 1479-1515

The Dynastic Union between Castile and Aragon, established in 1479, had changed the political landscape, with implications far beyond the Iberian peninsula. Aragon traditionally had territory and influence in Italy, most notably in Sardinia, Sicily. Aragon-Castile also claimed NAPLES, a claim which was disputed by French king CHARLES VIII. (1483-1498); in 1494 a French force occupied Naples. The TREATY OF TORDESILLAS signed between Spain and Portugal in 1494 was not recognized by France. France could not hold on to Naples and in 1504 recognized the Spanish claim on the city and kingdom.
In 1508 (LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI) France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and Pope Julius briefly were allies - against the Republic of Venice.
In 1515 Spanish troops have occupied NAVARRA except Navarrese territory to the north of the Pyrenees; the occupied territory was annexed into Spain. As Navarra had been regarded a French ally, this was a blow to France's position.

B.) Charles V. and Francis I.

In 1515 Francis I. ascended to the French throne. In the early years of his reign, he saw Habsburg Charles V., in quick succession, inheriting the Burgundian, Austrian, Bohemian lands, the crowns of Spain and (rest-) Hungary, and saw him elected Roman king - an unprecedented concentration of titles and power. From French perspective, Charles V. was the King of Spain and thus a French rival.
In 1521 war broke out between France and Charles V., the war mainly being fought on Italian soil, MILAN being the prime objective (the Sforza Dynasty became extinct in 1525). In the BATTLE OF PAVIA 1525 the French were defeated, King Francis I. taken prisoner. In the TREATY OF MADRID 1526, France had to cede her claims in Italy.
Relations between France and Charles V. remained uneasy. In 1532, France allied herself with the SCHMALKALDIC LEAGUE; in 1542-1544 France fought another war against Charles V., in 1545 France sent an embassy to Constantinopolis to discuss an alliance against the Emperor. Francis I. died in 1547, the year when the Schmalkaldic League was dissolved after the protestants had been defeated in the SCHMALKALDIC WAR.

C.) Habsburg and Valois 1547-1562

In 1552 Charles V. was surprised by the reorganization of the German princely opposition, which signed an alliance with France which in effect transferred the imperial princebishoprics of TOUL, METZ and VERDUN to the latter. French piracy against Spanish settlements and fleets in the Caribbean began. Jacques de Sores attacked and plundered Havana (Cuba) in 1555. Charles V. abdicated in 1556, the year after the Peace of Augsburg. In Spain and the Low Countries he was succeeded by his son Philip II., in the Empire by his cousin Ferdinand. The war between France and Spain resumed (1557-1559) ending in the PEACE OF CATEAU-CAMBRESIS (1559) which again was favourable to Spain. Then France soon found herself caught up in the HUGUENOT WARS

The Invasions of Italy 1494-1527. Machiavelli and Giuccardini, by Bill Gilbert
Italian Wars 1494-1559, from encyclopedia.com

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on January 23rd 2003, last revised on November 15th 2004

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