Renaissance, c.1350-1600 Absolutism, c. 1660-1789
Last revised on February 20th 2002




The Church in 1500
Church History
the Papacy ca. 1500
Church History
the German Church, ca. 1500
Church History
the English Church, ca. 1500
Church History
the Spanish Church

Early Reform Movements
Valdensians Hussites

Reformers
Martin Luther Huldrich Zwingli Jean Calvin Henry VIII. Council of Trent

Early Reformation
Early Lutheran Reformation
German Territories
Lutheran Reformation
Sweden
Early Calvinist Reformation
Geneva, Switzerland
Early Reformation
Anglican England

The Road to Conflicts
Catholic Reaction
Excommunication of Luther and Calvin
Catholic Reaction
the Jesuit Order

Contemporary Historical Events
Germany
The Peasants' War 1524/25
Habsburg Expansion
and Ottoman Threat
Spain and Portugal
Colonial Expansion
Wars over Italy Switzerland's Rise

Religion and Politics in the later 16th century
Germany
Uneasy Peace
Suppression of Protestantism
in the Netherlands
France
Catholics and Huguenots
Poland
Counterreformation
England
Bloody Mary and Elizabeth I.

Ongoing Reformation
The Anabaptists English Dissident Communities The Reformation in Scotland

Wars of religion
The Dutch Revolt The Showdown
Huguenot Wars
The Showdown
the Spanish Armada
The Bohemian Revolt The 30 Years War

Religiously Motivated Emigration
Refugees of Conscience
the Huguenots
A Haven for Refugees
the Netherlands
A Puritan Utopia
Massachusetts
A Catholic Refuge
Maryland

The Legacy of the Reformation
The Legacy
Religion Redefined
The Legacy
New Organizations
The Legacy
Europe Divided
The Legacy
the State Strengthened
The Legacy
Nations Develop