The Jews as described in Historic Encyclopedias



Note : The texts below are not purely factual accounts, but do contain judgments. The purpose of the compilation of translations below is to make accessible these accounts with their judgments and occasional inaccuracies. In a number of occasions, the prosaic wording and extremely long sentences in the original text forced the translator to apply a more liberal translation. Users are encouraged in sensitive cases to check the original.


Brockhaus 1809-1811, Brockhaus 1837-1841, Pierer 1857-1865, Meyer 1902-1909





Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Die Juden (1)
The Jews, disregarded of the hatred shown to them by Christianity, which used to persecue them, and who at some locations] still suffer persecution, belong to the most noteworthy peoples of the earth, and they are, in part because of the importance of their early history, in part because of their national character, which in the course of many centuries and in manifold changes this people experienced in all countries, has preserved their identity rather in a rather pure manner. It will always attract the attention of the scholar and encourage him to new examinations in the labyrinth of their history. Here it will suffice to focus attention on their fate among Christian peoples in general, and to merely recall a few important changes in the history of their state. One knows that the descendants of Abraham left Egypt to take possession of the land of Canaan, in which the tribe in earlier times had had its residence. Moses, the lawgiver of his people, created the state constitution and strove to preserve the Jews as pure and unblended, and to make any approach and fraternization with other nations impossible. Perhaps his was the main reason why he made them wholly dependent on priests and he created an arduous religious service. The transition from priestly rule to monarchy did not result in a change of the constitution, but only promoted under Salomo the tendency of the people to enjoy splendor and luxury, and resulted in the partition of the kingdom in two, of which Israel in the year of the world 3264 was destroyed by Assyria, and Juda in 3377 by the Babylonians. The return into their former possessions, approved by Persian king Cyrus, resulted in a new constitution, but this was not tenable, and the Jews became dependant of the Macedonians, then the Egyptians and finally the Romans, who under Pompey the Great had begun to interfere in their internal affairs. They maintained the right to be ruled by kings, and Herodes certainly was among the most respected and most powerful kings who were subjected to Rome in the time of Augustus, but nonetheless this constitution was of short duration. The tendency of the Jews to insurrections and mutinies, the moral decline among them, and the refusal to pay he tribute to Rome caused Emperor Vespasian to wage a war against them which ended with the conquest of Palestine. Jerusalem held on for some time, but then fell to Roman arms, was conquered by Titus, Vespasian's successor, in 70 A.D. and turned to ashes, as had been predicted to the Jews by the sublime founder of the Christian religion. At this time the Jewish state ceased to exist, and later attempts to its restoration were fruitless. Its inhabitants scattered more and more, spread in all countries of the earth, and experienced sometimes harsher, sometimes milder treatment, depending on the mood of the people being infavorable or favorable. But in no case they succeeded in gaining the status of burghers. The rights and freedoms they enjoyed under the later pagan Roman Emperors, and even under the early Christian Emperors, were lost under the Christians who became ibncreasingly intolerant against all Non-Christians. The hatred with which the Jews were persecuted in those days was accepted by those foreign peoples who converted to Christianity, who set an end to the Roman Empire. Only under the harshest conditions were they tolerated in the new states, barred from all offices and services, from engaging in agriculture and from any occupation of the free men. Exposed to such humiliation and oppression, which did not even spare them public abuse and insult, it does not wonder that their character was spoilt more and more, that their morals declined. As among all ocupations of burgherly activity only trade was left open to them, they engaged in it in such a way that they almost monopolized it in the Middle Ages. They took revenge against the Christians by engaging in usury and by charging excessive interest. The lack of money, the need for large sums to finance military campaigns, splendid festivities and other expenses caused the princes and lords in the Middle Ages to approach the Jews and borrow large sums, promising to pay very high, often excessive interest. If they later proved unable to repay the sum, as it frequently was the case, or did the voice of the people speak out against the theft and usury of the Jews, one knew of no other means but to implement a general persecution, to expel them from the country, and to recall them only if new financial needs made their presence necessary. Pretexts for such persecutions were not lacking as long as they were taken from the field of religion. At one time Jews were suspected of having poked blessed hosts, at another occasion they were suspected of having slaughtered Christian children or having engaged in other blasphemic nonsense. Among all these persecutions none was so gruesome and bloody as the one which was implemented almost in all countries of Europe in 1348 and 1349, because they were said to have poisoned the wells everywhere and hus to have caused the plague, which at that time devastated and depopulated all countris of the earth. The mob in Italy, France, Switzerland and Germany murdered and raged among them without fear. Thousands were burnt to death, the same number was tortured to death, and only a few could quickly flee the country or escape the danger by converting to Christianity. Although the accusations raised against them always were found to be unfounded, and later publicly were retracted, nonetheless, especially among the lower classes, the deep-rooted hatred against them did not end, and even continued when the Reformation in the 16th century kindled a light of enlightenment. The most probable cause of this indestructable prejudice, undisputedly lies in the fact that Luther himself had a negative view of the Jews, and he advised to treat them as an unavoidable evil. Suggestions which have been made in recent times in regard of their improvement did not achieve general publicity, but only were attempted in individual states, and also retracted. The class of the more distinguished and prosperous Jews in the larger cities enjoys much greater respect than before, and also stands out because of their education and knowledge, but the pooere ones are much less respected and still is at the same level as before. The same applies to Jewish communities who do not live in the larger cities, and therefore have fewer connections with the Christians. One has to expect that the grant of political rights as given to the Jews by the Convent of the Batavian Republic on September 2nd 1796, by which they made them active citizens, in future will have an impact on the Jewish national character. That Jews do not lack the potential to cquire knowledge of all kind has been proven by many examples in older and newer times. Medicine, mathematics and related sciences were brought by them from the Arabs to Europe, and the study of Hebrew language kept alive. Also in newest times men arose among them, who by their acumen and their high moral character gained respect in a high degree, and one may hope, as further as the beneficial effects of the enlightenment may spread, and reach all classes of humanity, that the Jewish nation will no longer lag behind the Christian one, and rise to a high degree of perfection and prosperity.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Die Juden (2)
Who, in the most recent times overloaden with unpredictable events, has not read with sympathy about the efforts of the governing to improve the moral and political condition of this so peculiar nation, by all kinds of means ? If a complete reform of the Jewish nation would be possible already at this moment, his is a question to be answered in later, perhaps calmer, times; on the other hand it can not be denied that in this respect already much has been accomplished, and preparations have been made. With great steps, and with justification, one has begun to move this nation so much closer to the other citizens, and has granted them the advantages and rights which every other burgher conducting himself calmly and industriously can achieve. At the beginning of the 19th century for instance in Germany to abolish the so-called Judenleibzoll, a step already the noble Emperor Joseph II. implemented in the Austrian lands in the second half of the 18th century. And who has not looked forward in tense expectation to read about the proceeds of a Jewish convention in Paris, created by decree of French Emperor Napoleon of May 30th 1806 (1), to which deputees from the Jewry of all departements of France had been sent, to discuss how among the Jews the practice of useful arts and occupations can be introduced, in order to replace by legal professions usury and illegal sources of revenue, which from many centuries ago until into our days have been traded from father to son, but most of all to examine if their religious dogmata do not conflict with the duties of a citizen, and might be an obstacle to them fully fulfilling their duties as a citizen. The deputees, 96 in number, convened, opened their consultations on July 26th, a sabbath, where they were given twelve questions, composed by the commissaries charged with this matter. The answers were as expected by the government, but it was regarded necessary to create a general assembly of the Jews, the so-called Great Sanhedrin (see there), which might elevate the decisions of the convention to religious dogmata for the entire Jewry. This was announced to the assembly on September 18th 1806, and this body, except for a chef, should consist of 70 members, of whom about two thirds should be rabbis, the other third to be elected by the convention in secret ballot, and a committee of 9 members should be appointed which was to consult the matters to be discussed with the Imperial commissaries. Further, the establishment of the Great Sanhedrin should be announced in all synagogues of Europe, and these should be called upon to send deputees to Paris. It seemed to be the only correct and reliable way to achieve a final and thorough reform of Judaism : their own representatives should reform the Jewish nation. The sessions began on February 9th 1807, and until March 9th 8 sessions were held, in which the decisions of the convention were dealt with, and after thorough reflection and comparison with the regulations of holy scripture and the stipulations of the Talmud, were elevated to religious dogmata for all Jews, but especially for those in France and Italy. Rabbi David Sinsheimer of Strassburg, who functioned as the chef of the Sanhedrin, Abraham Furtado of Bordeaux, president of the assembly, and other members of the assembly stood out as men who fully justified the trust invested in them. Now the French government undertook the last step, to complete the work it had begun. A decree of March 17th determined that in every departement where 2000 Jews reside, a synagogue and a consistory should exist, while a general consistory should reside in Paris. The departmental consistories were to assure that instruction would be made in accordance to the decisions of the Grea Sanhedrin, that synagogues were administrated, worship held by prayers and sermons in the same accordance, tha Jews were encouraged to take on useful arts and crafts etc. Also the Jewish tendency to usury was countered by a number of very practical stipulations. On April 3rd 1807 the assembly was announced that her work had been completed, and that the deputees would be dismissed. Their success will show, inhowfar - at least in France - the basis has been laid, to turn the Jews into good and useful citizens.
At the close of this article, in order to prove how much also German governments are intent to raise the Jewish nation to a higher level than before, refer to the most important Stättigkeits- und Schutz-Ordnung der Judenschaft zu Frankfurt, deren Verfassung, Verwaltung, Rechte und Verbindlichkeiten betreffend (Protective Odinnance for Frankfurt's Jewry, concerning their constitution, administration, rights and duties), which has been issued by the Prince Primate on Nov. 30th 1807, as it may prove an important step in regard to the improvement of the Jews, despite the fact that it may not be accepted by many of this nation and of their friends. Also the steps the government of the Kingdom of Westphalia has undertaken in this direction may contribute a lot to the reform of that nation.

(1) The cause to the convocation of this convention is given as follows : When, after the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon came through Strassburg, he was brought to the attention of limitless usury conducted by the Alsatian Jewry. The book of mortgages presented to him showed that the registered sums which had been lent by Alsatian Jews to the farmers surpassed the value of the respective plots of land by the factor 6 or 7. Because of this abuse the Emperor saw it necessary to organize the Jewish synod in Paris.

source in German, posted by Zeno


Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Die Juden

The Jews. Name for the entire Israelite people. ....
In the Middle Ages the Jews were in general a people regarded alien everywhere, they were at home everywhere, always supressed, persecuted, banished, always reappearing, despised. The popes, a few exceptions disregarded, favoured them, as far as this policy did not conflict with their Christian sovereignty. Venice excluded them from overseas trade. In Spain the Visigoths treated them harshly, but all the milder they were treated by their half-brethren, the Arabs, with whom they had befriended themselves already in Asia and Africa. That they had been responsible for introducing leprosy to France resulted in severe persecutions against them, especially in Burgundy. Charlemagne proved to be more tolerant, and even more so his son Louis the Pious. The fame they gained since the 10th century in all arts and sciences, especially as mathematicians, astronomers and as the most skilled medical doctors of the earth at the highest courts in Europe, into the 16th century even at the papal court, did not soothe the hatred the Christians felt against a group which because of usury and mediating trade had become a generally necessary evil. Already at the end of the 12th century the rebellious people of Castile murdered the beautiful Jewish mistress of King Alfonso IX., and the king who needed his subjects for the victory at Tolosa did not dare to punish the offenders. In France the fairytale of a host which could perform miracles being stolen by Jews served as a pretext for the destruction of the synagogues. During the crusades they were exposed to the bloodiest persecutions, disregarded the fact that they had to help guide the crusaders. The atrocities committed during the crusades for centuries remained as vivid memory of shock in the communities, and continued after the end of the crusades, when the plague, which followed the crusaders to Europe, was blamed on well-poisoning by the Jews and other vitriolic rumours such as them murdering Christian children, purchasing and poking hosts etc., all of which were used as pretexts to proceed with them bloodily. By force expelled from southwestern Germany, they went to Moravia and Poland, where they founded numerous communities. Tempted by advantages in trade, and indispensable for princely service, later they returned into the lands and cities they had vacated, where they had to live in secluded streets called Judengasse, but this new residence came with the loss of human rights and the payment of heavy dues, and at some places was made worse by the fact, that they for the purpose of humiliation had to wear an outward mark on their clothing, and that once a year they had to do humiliating work, or that they had to enter the churches, and in humility had to listen to hateful sermons. In Italy, where they were oppressed, they initiated the establishment of banks, also hey owned famous printing shops, especially at Sancino, Naples and Venice. The popes, for the most part, favored them. From the beginning of the 11th century until the present day, on the occasion of any pope ascending his throne, they give as presents the book of their laws, and as tribute to the papal chamber, a pound of pepper and two pounds of cinnamon. In Spain, in peaceful cohabitation with the Moors, they engaged in all arts and sciences, and they were not even alien to the art of poetry, but in 1492 they faced the edict of banishment decreed by Ferdinand and Isabella upon the initiative of Grand Inquisitor Thomas de Torquemada. Never was a law implemented more merciless, even those who converted to Christianity or pretended to have done so, were treated with a degree of injustice previously unheard of. The richest and most distinguished fled to Portugal, a smaller number to North Africa, where they lived in poverty and servitude. But also those in Portugal, upon the instigation of King Ferdinand, in 1507 were expelled by King Manuel. Italy and Constantinople took the largest part of the refugees, but the rumour that among Spain's and Portugal's leading families were those who outwardly appeared to be Christians, but in the secrecy of their households maintained the Jewish traditions of their ancestors, lasted into the 18th century. The Dutch Jews were, since the establishment of the free state, famous for their immeasurable wealth. The Polish and Russian Jewry, not content with an extended trade, also took over the bar business, even rose to holders of postal stations. The German Jews by contrast lived in poverty or modest prosperity. But the Jews of all countries shared in the fact that they lived without playing part in political life, in honour, fatherland and freedom, that they lived as aliens everywhere and that they had to sacrifice any fame of public service to lowly egotism. This disgrace of lowliness began to change into a gradually improved condition of the Jews since the mid of the 18th century, as improved education no longer denied them human rights, and they themselves, inspired by highly educated, spirited compatriots, in every way tried to respond to the demands of the time. They improved education, Talmudic stipulations lost in importance, in religious service the vernacular language was used. The logical consequence of this condition was the demand for full emancipation compared to the Christians. The motto of liberalism : political and religious freedom for the entire world ! won over a large party for this emancipation. Napoleon implemented the emancipation in 1806, which also remained valid in Holland and Belgium. In North America it is part of the structure of the state. Also in the German states the political status of the Jews since Joseph II. has seen manifold improvements, but against their full emancipation, which temporarily had been implemented under the French, an otherwise not illiberal party stated that the Jews were aliens to the fatherland, who therefore deserved the highest form of hospitality, and that the European states had been founded on a Christian basis, which would not be shaken by the emancipation of the Jews, but which would be negated by such an act. But it is a harsh contradiction to demand of the Jews patriotic mind and action, and at the same time to exclude them from enjoying political rights, partially or completely. Attempts to convert the Jews also have been made in recent times, but in most cases they fail because of the lack of faith among the Christians. In Russia those Jews who convert to Christianity, they are called Israelite Christians, are granted special privileges. They may chose any Christian denomination, are granted land, freedom of trade, civil rights and may elect their own administration, are freed of state service, and only after 20 years the duties of the other subjects apply.

source in German, posted by Zeno


Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Die Juden

Jews. For their earlier history until the destruction of Jerusalem, see under Hebrews).
I. Their outward fate from the destruction of Jerusalem until recent time. After the dissolution of the Jewish state, especially at the time of Roman Emperor Hadrian, who by the ban on the celebration of the Sabbath and on circumcision, as well as by constructing a new city (Aelia Capitolina) on the ruins of ancient Jerusalem, attempted to exterminate the Jewish nationality, repeatedly rebellions erupted, so in 115 A.D. the rebellion under Andrew, who committed atrocities of all kinds and, on Cyprus alone, had 1400 Romans killed, but commander Trajan defeated the rebels and scattered them. As the pressure the Jews were exposed to increased, under Bar Kochba in 127 A.D. they rose again in rebellion. Bar Kochba, an adventurer, moved from Cyrene to Egypt, which had become a center of Judaism since the desruction of Jerusalem, to Ethiopia and Arabia, to Syria and Judea. Here the learned Akiba and many non-Jews joined him, but the Christians stayed away, and were persecuted by him. Bar Kochba defeated the Romans and took several fortified places, even Jerusalem, had himself proclaimed king. Finally Hadrian sent Julius Severus against him; he took on the rebels one by one, annihilated them, took Jerusalem and had it burnt down. In 135 Bethr, the last fortress, fell, and Bar Kochba perished. The number of persons who died in this rebellion is estimated at 500,000; the prisoners were sold into slavery. A similar fate met the rebellions under Antoninus Pius and under other emperors, and all these attempts only contributed to further the scattering of the Jews in imprisonment. Emperor Julianus was tolerant toward them. He permitted them even to reconstruct the temple, but it soon became a victim of the flames. But when Constantine the Great declatred Christianity state religion in the Roman Empire, and after Christianity continued to spread after the death of Julian, tension between Christians and Jews often resulted in a partial persecution by the clergy, as under Justinian II. in Greece, and Honorius, Arcadius and Justinian one by one abolished he laws which had been enacted in favour of the Jews. Also elsewhere, namely under Sapor in 250 A.D., had Jews to suffer bloody persecution. They regarded their faith as God's punishment, but continued to regard themselves Jehova's chosen people, and believing themselves to be martyrs, held on to their faith. This enthusiasm for their faith was the establishment of a sanhedrin and patriarchate in Tiberias, about the time of Nerva, the establishment of several academies in Tiberias, Jaffa, Lydda, and the establishment of a similar patriarchate in Babylon. These institutions did not last, the patriarchate of Tiberias terminated in 415, hat in Babylon in 1038, but here from earlier sects rabbinism emerged, which by the regulation of teaching implemented Mosaic law in all areas of life. Under these patriachs the holy books of the Jews, the Mishna, later the Gemara, and as law book the Talmud were compiled. These have given Judaism the constitution it has now. They still refer to a Messiah, who, with temporal powers, will elevate the Jews to the first rank among the peoples of the world, and so the credulous were fooled by numerous tricksters.
While the Jews, in a time of the decay of science in Europe, maintained a degree of civilization and dominated trade, they survived the Barbaric Peoples' Migration, despite having to suffer persecutions, which the Christians undertook especially in the 7th century, as they blamed the Jews for all kinds of mishaps. Among the Goths in Spain and the Franks in Gaul an effort to convert the Jews; the latter had to undergo baptism, or were maltreated or forced to emigrate. Most left the country of their persecutors, those, who had undergone baptism, reverted once the storm had passed. In the 7th century, Muhammad initially atempted to win over the Jews by mildness, but later to convert them by the sword. Under Caliph Almansor they were granted more freedoms, and they fared better under Muslims then under Christians. Especially under the Moors in Spain, they rose to prosperity and education. When the crusades began at he end of the 10th [!] century, the fury of the Christian peoples turned against them, as one believed to have to exterminate the descendants of those who had crucified the savior. Also they were blamed for all kinds of crimes, the theft and murder of Christian children, poisoning of the wells, bewitching of men and animals etc. Princes and nobles often supported such persecutions, because as the Jews were almost the only holders of money, and as they lent it for interest, these princes and nobles, by the death or expulsion of the Jews, in one moment got rid of their debts. Such persecutions of the Jews took place under Alfonso III. in Spain, under Philippe Auguste in France, in 1020 in England, and again on the occasion of the coronation of Richard I. Their condition was extremely pressed, in German and Italian cities where they were permitted to dwell, they could only inhabit a specific section (ghetto), which at night was closed off. In Germany they were serfs belonging to the head of state, and were called the servants of the Holy Roman Empire's chamber. They had to pay 1 Florin annually to the emperor, and to pay Leibzoll (Judenschoss) to the vassalls whose territories they crossed. Similar conditions applied in France, where by that time they had been readmitted, and when they were again expelled from there under Philippe V. in 1318, they fled to Lombardy. Only those who accepted baptism were permitted to stay. But even those and their children experienced on April 4th 1392 the confiscation of their property. The most cruel persecution was the one which followed the Black Death of 1348 and 1349, when the Jews were accused of having poisoned the wells. They were persecuted with fire and sword, expelled from the cities where they still had been permitted. In this time of need they fled to Poland. Not only had they been granted there special privileges in 1264 and in Lithuania at about the same time, but King Casimir III., who had a Jewish mistress by the name of Esther, in 1358 granted them privileges which infringed upon the rights of Christian guilds, and so they came there in large numbers. Fllowing this persecution, matters for the Jews calmed down, even in Spain they settled down again and found protection by Alfonso of Aragon. But in 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella expelled them forever from their countries, and both persuaded King Manuel of Portugal to decree the same in his country. Only those who underwent baptism were permited to stay in the peninsula, and the inquisition was charged with finding those who practiced Judaism in secrecy. Later laws were passed which excluded these New Christians (the converts are still called so in Spain) from public office and which established other limitations. More than 400,000 at the end of he 15th century emigrated from the Iberian peninsula, the Spanish mostly to Barbary and Italy, the Portuguese to Guyana, in part to the Netherlands. In the 15th to the 17th century the situation of the Jews improved, they were tolerated in Venice, Rome, Piemont, Tuscany, and while expulsions from some areas (Bavaria 1454, Cologne 1509, Marburg at about the same time) were implemented, this' was not done in the same roughness as in earlier centuries. On the other hand, Duke Heinrich Julius admitted them in the Braunschweig territories, and their numbers increased significantly in Hamburg, Altona, Silesia, Bohemia, and in the March Brandenburg. In 1650 they held a council in Hungary which stated tht the Messiah still had not arrived, but was still expected and certainly would come. Indeed, in 1662 a Jew from Smyrna, Sabbathai-Sevi, supported by the wealthy Nathan, appeared in Gaza and Jerusalem claiming to be the Messiah. But at the order of the Turks he had to leave Jerusalem and returned to Smyrna. In 1666 he undertook a second attempt in Jerusalem, but was arrested and forced to convert to Islam. As he secretly continued to spread his Messianic ideas, he finally was incarcerated in Dulcigno on Morea. His supporters strove to undermine Rabbinism, but after his death they were absorbed by Jews and Muslims.
II. The Emancipation of the Jews up to recent times. Demands to free the Jews from the various restrictions they had been exposed to, and to grant them equal status with the other citizens, were already raised in the second half of the 18th century. To this contributed the education of the Jews, developed by Mendelsohn, as well as modern state law, also the call of the French Revolution for religious and civil freedom. Yet, the mood then benevolent concerning the Jews did not bring about a common policy, but instead every country applied its particular legislation, which especially in the countries with constitutional government has seen frequent change. Among the European states, Spain and Portugal, as in the Middle Ages, so they are still averse to them; both the Spanish constitution of 1855 and the Portuguese constitution declare the Roman Catholic Church state church, next to which all others are merely tolerated; in both countries the Jews do not enjoy equal civil rights. In France, Napoleon I. in 1806 convened the Great Sanhedrin of 100 of the most respected Jews of France, to consult over Jewish affairs, and soon after issued a decrete that only Jews who were engaged in a civil trade were to be granted citizenship; until the charter of 1814 and of 1830 granted all faiths equal rights, in consequence of which the state treasury from February 8th 1831 onward took on the costs for Jewish religious service and a part of the costs for education. These stipulations were maintained by the constitution of November 4th 1848. Jewish affairs are administrated by a general consistory in Paris, those of the Jews in Algeria since 1846 by a separate Jewish consistory in Algiers with two provincial consistories in Oran and Constantine. In consequence of these stipulations, the Jews are not only engaged in trade and industry, but they also serve state and science, partially in high office. In England the earlier aversion toward the Jews has mildened, legislation since 1829 has freed them of many restrictions, only the occupation of a seat in parliament could not yet be achieved, because of the Christian oath, until finally, after a 12 year struggle, in 1858 a change of the oath formula in favour of the Jews was permitted, in the consequence of which Samuel Rothschild on July 27th 1858 entered the House of Commons. For their education in the sciences Jews could only attend the University of London, which was not in an immediate relation with the state church, while the signature under the 39 articles demanded by the other universities prevented them access. In Holland [!] and Belgium, the Jews were already emancipated at the end of the 18th century, and individual stipulations were abolished in the Revolution of 1830. In Belgium the state took on the expenses for the Jewish religious service, and individual incidents, as in Maastricht 1840, where on the occasion of the opening of a new synagogue the mob took violent action against the Jews, had their origin on local conditions. In Scandinavia Denmark already in the 18th century, but especially in 1814 declared freedom of trade (the selection of professions). while their political rights were limited, in elections for the Rigsdag they had the right to vote, but not the right to stand for election; since 1850 marriages between Christians and Jews may be concluded without royal permission, under the condition that the children are raised as Christians. In Sweden several measures easing restrictions for the Jews, such as the decree of 1838, received such a negative response from the side of the people, especially the craftsmen, that excesses took place and the government cancelled several of the milder stipulations. In Norway, where the constitution of 1814 barred them from entering the country, the diet of 1851 opted for permitting them entry to the country, which was approved by the king, and now for them the same regulations are in force which apply to the Christian confessons other than the state church according to the law of July 16th 1845. In the Russian Empire, which in its Polish provinces is home to a large Jewish population, their conditions were determined by an ordonnance, and they were offered privileges if they joined in colonization. But during the last decade the Russian government pursued a more severe policy toward the Jews, in part because of their participation in revolutionary activities in Poland, in part because of their involvement in smuggle trade along the border. According to a decree of Mai1843 all Jews living within 50 werst of the border to Prussia and Austria should be resettled further in the interior. Another Ukase of September 26th 1843 made it mandatory for them from January 1st 1844, to do military service just as any other subject, abolishing the fee they hitherto had paid instead of military service (105,299 Rouble). In 1816 it was decreed that all Jews of the Kingdom of Poland up to the age of 60 no longer should wear their traditional dress (kaftan, girdle, able cap), should trim their beards and curls, and instead should dress like the Christians; if they were willing to pay an annual tax of 50 Roubles until they reached the age of 50, they were permitted to maintain their traditional dress. An Ukase of 1850 forbade Jewish women to cut their hair. But since 1854 several measures have eased the situation of the Jews. Namely the May Ukase of 1843, although it never was implemented because of the damage it would do to trade, was rescinded. In Turkey they enjoy the advantages and privileges granted to other nations subjected to the rule of the Sultan. In Italy in most states the medieval severity against the Jews continues into our days. Namely in the Papal State, where in June 1843 it was decreed thet the inquisition was to supervise the Jews, and that the Jews were deprived of several civil rights. In Rome they have the permission to live in the Jewish town (ghetto), and for papal protection they have to pay 800 Scudi annually, and since 1823 on the Sabbath they have to listen to a sermon intending to induce them to convert. The Jewish tax, abolished by the republican triumvirate in 1849, was reintroduced after the restauration, in 1851 also the prohibition for Jews to take Christian women into their service reintroduced. Only in the duchies some restrictions were abolished, in Sardinia in 1848 the emancipation of the Jews intended. In Switzerland the condition of the Jews is restricted even in the liberal cantons, so Basel Land forbade them to be in the country except for market days; in 1851 the prohibition against settlement formulated more strict, and the taking of a Jewish servant or aid threatened with punishment.
In Germany the conditions of the Jews have developed in a rather peculiar way. The protection they used to get from the Emperor had to be paid for in form of a tax into the Imperial treasury. This Imperial right in the 16th century, by he granting of privileges and by Imperial legislation, was transferred to the Empire's princes who held regalia, and from this time on the rather hefty Leibzoll was raised, which had to be paid every time when a Jew entered a territory. Only at the end of the 18th century, this Leibzoll was abolished in Austria, Prussia and Bavaria, in Germany's other states only at he beginning of he 19th century. Following the dissolution of the German Empire a better era seemed to begin also for the Jews. The federal act in article 16 contained the stipulation that the federal assembly would debate how in a rather uniform way the civil improvement of the condition of the Jews in Germany could be achieved, and how these could enjoy the civil rights while share the civil duties in the states of the federation, in a way that they maintained the rights which already had been granted in individual states. Only such federal legislation was not enacted, and so the legislation in the various member states had to take on the issue, all the more as several constitutions had promised a regulation of the matter. During the events in Germany in 1848 the federal decision of April 7th 1848 regarding the election of deputees to the Constituent Assembly in Frankfurt opened to them access to the German National Assembly, and the enacting of German basic rights (1849), namely paragraph 16 thereof, stated that civil rights and the rights of a citizen could not be granted on condition or restricted, and that it should not infringe on citizens' duties. So full emancipation was granted, as paragraph 20 established that a difference in religion should not be an obstacle to marriage, so the direction toward a closer connection with the Christians was taken. Also in regard to the Jewish oath the basic rights were important. Already earlier state legislation had come up with a corresponding oath formula for Jews in Christian courts, for instance in Braunschweig where according to the law of 1845 the formula begins with the words : "On the eternal, my God, I swear without premediation and excuse, with an upright heart .." and which concludes with the words : "so help me God !". The swearing person gives the oath with a covered head, by laying his hand on 2 Moses 20.7. Similar regulations were implemented in Saxony 1840 and elsewhere. The formula preformulated in the basic rights, "so help me God !", was stripped of specifically Christian content and thus was suited as well for the Jews, this is why it was applied in several states. The abolition of the basic rights by the federal assembles in 1851 caused the partial termination of improvements; in regard to the Jewish emancipation the status quo of before 1848 was restored, and it was left to state legislation to regulate the matter by specific laws.
In Austria the Josephine edict remained valid, which excluded the Jews from full rights of a state and communal citizen, but which burdened them with all duties of a citizen, the payment of taxesw, military service etc. They are not permitted to hold public office, promotion in the military is rather difficult, the purchase of real estate and living in he countryside not permitted, relocation of the residence from one province to another requires a permit from the government (foreigners require in regard to taking up residence the special permission of the Emperor). They are either completely forbidden to run an enterprise or barred from holding the title of a master. They are not barred from practising medicine, in he legal business there are a number of limitations, In some provinces not all these regulations are fully in force. So in Moravia they are allowed to buy or rent real estate without the Emperor's permission, run a business, and in cities, where Jewish communities exist, acquire the title of a master craftsman. In Bohemia they enjoy the same freedoms, and while only the inhabitants of Prague's Jewish town engage in trade, since 1849 they may take up residence in the other parts of the city. In Hungary freedom of trade without limitations was granted, but in 1843 the diet rejected full emancipation. After the events of 1848 the Reichstag in Vienna took up the issue, and a decision of the diet resulted in the Imperial decree of November 1848 that the Jewish tax, and all fees on passports and local police taxes were abolished and that Jewish merchants were to be treated equal with Christian merchants. But already in 1849, when they were suspected of participating in the Hungarian revolution, in several parts of the Austrian crownlands public demonstrations of an aversion against the Jews occurred, and the government abolished the right of Jews to acquire real estate, which had been granted in 1849, in 1854. But presently a revision of this law is expected.
In Prussia the legislation of 1812 gave them the right of citizenship, freedom of trade (choice of profession), freedom to own real estate, the freedom to hold communal and academic office, the abolition of taxes for Jews, and promised a law permitting them to hold state office. In the following years, several of these stipulations were not implemented, but a law of 1847 concerning the civil conditions of the Jews lifted restrictions concerning the move of Jews from one part of the country to another, restrictions against Jewish peddlars, lifted the ban on Jews entering certain trades and abolished conditions which were to make it difficult for Jews to acquire real estate. Also it was no longer necessary for domestic Jews to acquire permission for marriage; in regard to taking an oath they were given conditions equal to those of the Christians; they were permitted to take on the function of ombudsman and to enter state service, without exercising state authority in civil and military affairs. At universities they can function as regular professors of mathematics, natural science, medicine and linguistics; in vocational schools they can function as teachers. .. Civilian marriage among Jews is permitted; the matter of a marriage between a Jew and a Christian was not addressed. This law was maintained after the changes of 1848.
In Bavaria for the Jews the edict of 1813 is still valid. They are permitted to purchase real estate for themselves. At places, where Jews are residing, in case their number being too large, measures shall be taken which are suitable to their reduction. Under certain conditions (acceptance of fixed surnames, oath of loyalty to the state) they were to be granted the indigenate. Then they are entered in the Jewish matricula, and they enjoy the full civil rights. The acceptance of foreign Jews is forbidden, and only in the case of large establishments, upon achievement of the title of master craftsman, and in case of important purchases the territorial lord is granting a dispense. State and communal offices are open to them, also a military career. Peddling, haggling, brewery, bar- and innkeeping are forbidden to them. If they want to marry they have to apply for a permit, which is granted upon proof of sufficient income. The law draft of 1849, which was to grant Jews equal rights to those of Christians, was rejected. In Rhenish Bavaria, where earlier French legislation is still valid, the conditions of the Jews are somewhat better. In Württemberg the law of 1828 is still valid, where the earlier principle of protection now equality in front of the law is the basic principle. They can enter the service of state and community, can enter the legal and medical profession, they may vote in local elections but not in state elections. Further legal limitations concern the sale of property, marriages, immigration etc. Also every Jew must be member of a Jewish parish which is presided by a rabbi and several counselors. They are charged with religious service, ethics and administration, as well as charity. In Hannover, where the conditions of the Jews in various parts of the country were different, only in 1842 a law was passed which ended the condition of protection and granted the right of citizenship, but which made running a business, the purchase of real estate, the change of residence, the right to marry and the immigration of foreign Jews dependent on conditions, in most cases on the approval of the government. Especially haggling trade was much restricted. In the Kingdom of Saxony, where the strict Jews Ordinnance of 1772 was mildened by the Russian administration of 1814, and namely the Leibzoll was abolished, the condition of the Jews was regulated by the law of 1838 and an amendment of 1840. The limitations contained in these consist of permanent residence only being permitted in Dresden and Leipzig, change of residence from one of these cities to the other, the immigration of foreign Jews, require approval by the government, certain professions are barred to them, such as barkeeping, distillery, the ownership of drugstores, retail trade, peddling and haggling. In case they acquire real estate (which they may not voluntarily sell for 10 years) they acquire the rights of a burgher, but not the rights promised to these in the ordinnance for citiies, i.e. they can neither serve in communal nor state offices. The government permits them to take up the legal profession.
In Baden, where they used to enjoy unrestricted citizenship, the constitution of 1818 deprived them of the right to run for election for the Landtag (diet), they also were excluded from holding state office, and by the municipal ordinnance of 1831, from holding communal office. In regard to the acquisition of land, and the running of businesses there are no specific restrictions, only haggling trade is, where possible, prevented. In Electoral Hessen (Hessen-Kassel) the constitution of 1831 laid the ground for the emancipation of the Jews by the law of 1833, which contains only a few restrictions, by comparison their condition in Hessen-Darmstadt is much less free. For instance, the right of citizenship, except for acceptance of state office, is granted by the ministry only under certain conditions (in case of wholesale trade proof of a certain fortune, in the case of craftsmen membership of a guild, revocation of the practice of haggling etc.), and the purchase of real estate is also only permitted under certain conditions. In Rheinhessen the conditions of the Jews, since Napoleonic times, are somewhat better. In Nassau Jews are still under state protection, which in case proof of fortune is provided, is extended to the oldest son or daughter, who alone will be granted the permission by the state to marry. In exceptional cases they were admitted to state service, but not to municipal service. The purchase of real estate is unrestricted, also the running of businesses, with few exceptions. In Oldenburg the law of 1827 grants them the right of citizenship, but this requires a letter of protection, which following the death of the holder is given to only one member of the family. They may function as medical doctors and lower state officials, but not as communal or higher state officials. The possession of real estate is permitted, but the law strives to restrict haggling trade. The permission to marry the government grants exclusively to Jews with a concession. In Braunschweig since the Westphalian administration the earlier condition of protection ended, but later legislation established several restrictions, for instance in regard to the acquisition of real estate, while the running of businesses is unrestricted. Laws of 1848 and 1849 abolished any inequality in public and private rights which were based on religious faith. In the Mecklenburg States in general protection continues. In Schwerin since 1848 they had gained the right of burghers, and thus the right to acquire real estate, but later they were forbidden to exercise this right, because according to the stipulations of the Landesvergleich Jews were not allowed to own land in Mecklenburg. In Holstein Jews were tolerated only in a few cities, ans subjected to many restrictions. In the Anhaltine Lands various conditions apply. In Köthen and Bernburg freedom of trade (choice of profession) applies, and the acquisition of real estate underlies few restrictions; so the condition is relatively free. In Dessau the condition of protection prevails, with the related taxes and fees, and running an enterprise, marriage, the change of residence underlie numerous restrictions. A Weimar law of 1850 grants Jews full emancipation. In Meiningen and Hildburghausen according to edicts of 1811 and 1814 the Jews are subjects of the state, but a number of restrictions apply, especially when it comes to running businesses. Similar restrictions apply in the Reuss States, in Lippe, where after a number of years the renewal of the letter of protection is required. In Schwarzburg-Sondershausen the Jews are excluded from state and municipal service, but unrestricted in regard to the acquisition of real estate and the running of businesses. The situation is almost the same in Waldeck. In the four free cities, their extended trade connections affected the legislation regarding the condition of the Jews. Most favorable were conditions in Frankfurt/Main, where the law of 1824 barred them from holding state and municipal office, but not from the legal and medical profession, and in regard to civil rights granted them equality with Christian citizens. In regard to the puchase of real estate they are permitted to acquire one house and one garden, as crafsmen and merchants they underlie restrictions. The altered constitution of 1849 extended their rights, also in Hamburg. In Lübeck since 1848 they were granted rights equal to those of Christians. In Bremen they still have to pay for protection.
In regard to their condition in other parts of the world, this is only partially known. In Asia, where they live in all countries, they seem to have accomodated themselves to Islam at several places, and thus have achieved an improvement in their conditions. Most oppressed they are in Persia, in Syria they are engaged in trade and agriculture, in East India, where are black and white Jews, they are mainly craftsmen, also soldiers, in the Chinese province Kai-feng-fu there are Jews who claim to have come there in 200 B.C. In Africa, where many Jews live, in general they suffer the same pressure which Islam exercises against all non-believers, and which is applied harshly in Fez-Morocco and Egypt, but in a milder way in Tunis, where their linguistic and medical skills have gained them a certain influence. In Algeria their condition has improved under French administration. In America in the United States they enjoy all rights of a burgher and all political rights; also in Jamaica in 1842 emancipation was introduced, but in South America they are largely subjected to restrictions; only the Dutch Colonies grant them freedom.
In regard to the emancipation of the Jews the states have emphasized the notions of a Christian state and of nationality. The population mostly spoke out against emancipation, for material reasons, and the relations between Christians and Jews have improved only gradually, and not everywhere; even in recent times the persecutions of old have been repeated, so in Syria 1840 and in Moldavia, and even in Germany in eventful years, such as 1819 (see Hep-hep), in 1830 and in 1848 the old hatred of Jews reappeared, although also signs of peaceful, tolerant attitude in social and business affairs were not lacking. Toward emancipation in life in recent times strove the Lichtfreunde ("friends of light") with their far-reaching plans of union, while stricter theologians speak out against his system of nivellation.
III. The Present-Day Jews According ton their Customs, Characer and Lifestyle. As a relic of the old Hebrews, by and large they remained unchanged. While in most countries they are discriminated against in civil society, with a secretive pride they regard themselves God's chosen people, and await the return of the Messiah, who shall free them from the present situation of oppression and empower them over all other peoples. A.) In stature and physiognomy into our days preserve the signs of Oriental descent. The men have shining black hair (sometimes red), worn in curls on the side. They have firy black eyes, a long protruding curved nose and a protruding, upward turned chin (Jewish chin), are skinny, have inward-bent knees. They take short steps and walk hastily. The female gender are characterized by round faces, black eyes and overall chubbyness, but with age they also tend to become skinny. Peculiar is also the dialect in which the Jews speak the national language, especially in Germany (see "Judendeutsch"). The main treats in the National Character of the Jews are egotism, the desire to make profit, cleverness. A large number of them is engaged in haggling trade (see "Schacherjuden"). In trade they usually make many suggestions, but are conent with tiny profit. With great devotion they take on the business of currency exchange and banking, the trade in bonds. Also in regard to borrowing money on pawns at higher than usual interest (which was permitted in a number of states) they take on great risks. Because of their expertise in trade in former Poland and the Orient the Jews are intermediaries between merchant and customer, and every great person has a Jew as factor. But that they are suited to other trades is proven by several Jewish colonies in Ukraine and by businessmen at several locations in Germany. The military is not their business, and in most states they are exempted from military service. Because of their characteristic acumen in the field of sciences, namely in medicine and linguistics, at all times there have been famous Jews; their active phantasy has produced musicians and poets among them, their wit has produced belletrists and journalists. In regard to politics most of them are liberals. The number of Jews in the world is estimated at over 8 million.
While emancipation has much changed their social conditions, they have maintained B.) their national law, even outside of Palestine, the sources of which are Mosaic Law and the Talmud. Marriage is concluded by betrothal in writing in front of witnesses with the pledge of a certain sum of money, and by the ceremony of marriage. The husband has a claim on everything his wife gains by the way of work or luck; he has the right to use the proceeds of her fortune, and is her universal heir. Inheritance is partially regulated by law, partially by testament. In case of testaments the regulations concerning donations to living persons or donations by the dead apply, depending on the testament being given in the condition of witness or being found after death. Among the descendants first the sons and their male heirs inherit, then the daughters, and in case of the lack of the latter, female descendants. After the descendants follows the father, in case of him lacking the brothers and their descendants, and if none of them are there, the sisters and their heirs. Persons who are related on their mother's side never inherit from each other. Children can inherit the mother, but the mother can not inherit the children. Children out of wedlock, even those created by incest, are not excluded from inheritance, but the mother has to be free and of Jewish nation. If she is a slave or not of Jewish stock, the children follow the mother, and they do not inherit from the father even if there are no other children. The first-born son receives a double share (only of what the father owned, not of active debt), but he also gets a double share of passive debt. If the first-born has died before the partition of the inheritance, his claim is transferred to his inheritants; everyone can give up his claim, sell it or donate it. The inheritance of husbands depends on the length of the marriage, if they lived together for one, two or several years.
Donations have to be conducted in public, and property has to be properly transferred; if a donation is to be retracted, this has to be done by a reverse donation with all formalities. Guardianship is either established by testament or according to the law. The guardian established by law has to precisely calculate revenues and expenses of the warden, the one established by law only has to swear to conduct the guardianship in the best interest of the warden (in many countries Christian authorities have taken upon themselves the care for Jewish wardens). Adulthood the Jew reaches with the age of 13 years and one day, when he wears a visible sign of manhood, while the Jewess under the ame conditions, already from completing her 12th year is regarded of age. Only from the age of 20 the Jew may trade. The girl, until she reaches adulthood, is under the authoriy of her father; he father may marry her off without her consent (several state laws regulate the majority of Jews according to civil law). The application of these laws and the hiring of a rabbi are placed under state supervision. In regard to civil conditions they are subjected to the laws of the state and have to be judged by them, unless they can prove special exemption.
In regard to C.) religion and cult of the Jews, both are still monotheistic Mosaism (see under "Hebrews"), but perturbed by the teachings of the Talmud, which maintain their tradition and which are held in higher esteem than the bible (law (Torah) and the prophets). The continued adherence to many peculiar teachings into our times has proven to be an obstancle in their effort to demand equal treatment in front of the law compared to other citizens of Christian states. The place of the sacrifice in the cult (rite) since he destruction of the temple in Jerusalem has been occupied by the prayer (Tephila), and prayer make up the larger part of public and home worship of God. The Mosaic law does not contain regulations concerning the prayer, except for the fomula concerning confession of the high priest held over sacrifices on the day of reconciliation. Otherwise one used to pray as one felt, in the temple and at other places. The extinction of the Hebrew language resulted in the introduction of fixed prayer formulas. The three daily prayers (morning prayer - Schachrith, evening prayer - Mincha, night prayer - Arbith) probably corresponds to the three sacrifices in the temple, and the time when hey are held, this is why on feast days a fourth prayer (Mussaf) is held in he late morning. Their main part is the Schema, and the Schemone Essra (i.e. 18, the number of blessings listed in it)., often called Tephila. Among the oldest prayers are the table prayer (Benschen), expressions of gratitude (Berachoth) when food is consumed, when one goes to bed and when one rises from it, the calling of fasts, the Kadish (beatification) which on the occasion of the loss of parents is daily recited after prayer, for a period of 11 months and on the day of their death, Kiddusch (beatification) on the eve, Habhdala (differentiation) at the end of a feast over a cup of wine, Alenu, which during he Middle Ages was interpreted as being directed against Christians, and which was used to justify persecutions, Kol Nidre, which is spoken on the eve of the day of reconciliation, in which voluntary promises are declared as being not binding. They have been accepted into public right by religious authorities, respected men and by scholars, in part by prayer leaders (Chasan, Schelich Zibur). The prayer is followed in religious service by readings from the Torah (Pericopes), which is read every year or every three years. The weekly segment is called Sidra, the piece, which is read by the person called upon (usually there are 9, the first of whom is a Cohen, i.e. a priest from the tribe of Aaron, the second a Levi etc.) is called Parascha, the last (Maftir) reads a fitting segment from the prophets (Haftara). A collection of common prayers is called Sidur; there are many editions. In the middle of the 8th century the liturgy in Europe was enriched by artificial prayers mixed into the Hagada, Piut (plural Piutim), poetry, mainly for feast days. The multiplication of such prayers caused important differences in the rite (Minhag). Mainly Spanish, German, Polish and Italian rite are distinguished, and further those of certain cities. The Spanish Piutim are in a more pure Hebrew, and are more clear, the others more obscure and contain more Aramaeic elements, and therefore they are frequently commented. The Karaites have their own prayers. The collection of these prayers is called Machsor. In recent tims reforms have suggested a number of changes in religious service. Jakobsohn in 1815 eliminated the Piutim, introduced German language prayer and German language sermon, organ and choire. Public prayer in a synagogue or a private home requires the presence of at least 10 persons (Minjan) and contains few peculiarities. The prayer is combined with the application of the prayer headband (Tephilim) and the prayer coat (Talith), as well as a few other traditions on feast days. The Jews sit or stand during prayer, the latter specially durinf the Schemone Essra when the drawer with the prayer rolls is opened, when segments of the Torah are read etc. They kneel only on new years day and on the day of reconciliation, three times, during the Alenu. The other positions of the Orientals have long come out of use, but they maintained shaking movement (Schockeln), for instance when learning the Talmud. Schockeln and chattering, which have resulted in the name "Jewish School" have been abolished almost everywhere. Of the feasts still the ones of old are celebrated; the weakly feast day is the Sabbath or Schabbess; fasting, now five times, is followed with various degrees of intensity by the various sects, in regard to confession see the article by that name, their sacrament is circumcision. Their priests are called rabbis, their houses of prayer synagogues. For their ceremonies regading the burial of the dead see under burial of the dead. The perception that some of their customs and traditions were in conflict with institutions of nations amng which the Jews lived as a tolerated nation, and that the Old Rabbinic tradition closely leaning on theTalmud formed an obstacle to emancipation, resulted in the so-called attempts to reform.
IV. Attempts of Reform, which in part have been striven for by states and associations, in part by Jewish individuals. At first A.) states have eyed at the Jewish education system, and have created a number of institutions to raise the education of the youth. In Weimar according to the Jews Ordinnance of 1823 all Jewish teachers have to take an examination at the supreme consistory before taking on a teaching position. In 1840 in Berlin a seminary for Jewish teachers was established. In Moravia no rabbi is excepted if he can not show documentation proving that he studied pedagogics at a domestic institution. In Russia in 1841a general regulation for Jewish schools in the Empire was established, and rabbi seminaries for the future instructors of the people established. But Jewish Orthodoxy has looked at these innovations not without suspicion. Not less care have governments spent on Jewish cult. Weimar had an ordinnance drafted for Jewish religious service, according to which, with very few exceptions, the service shall be held in German language, and anything conspicuous shall be avoided. Baden also issued an ordinnance for religious service and in 1834 formed synagogue councils which have similar responsibilities as to protestant parish councls. In Austria in 1820 an edict concerning improved religious service was issued and in 1850 an assembly of trusted men to regulate Israelite cult relations in Bohemia convened. On the other hand, in a period when the Jews strove to extend their political rights, some governments pursued the policy of obstructing such reforms. Also Christian associations and clubs invested effort to srive for a reform of the Jews. In this category fall attempts by the Herrnhuters since 1739, and by the school of Spener in the 18th century, in the 19th century mainly by the English, to convert the Jews to Christianity. The London Missionary Society to Spread Christianity among the Jews exists since 1808; it has unfolded considerable activity especially in the province of Posen, and since 1848 their agents have targeted the larger cities of Russia. Their success was not without importance. Nonetheless, in 1845 a second British society for the promotion of Christianity among the Jews was established, which proved less successful than the former. Since 1820 similar societies were founded in Germany and Switzerland, mostly under the name Friends of Israel, so in Frankfurt, Dresden, Basel, Berlin, Hamburg and elsewhere.
Most important were B.) reform attempts among the Jews themselves. For these two evens proved effective : the appearance of Mendelsohn in the 18th century, who by introducing the German language among the Jews, by his writings and by his effort concerning religious, national, ethical and social life has achieved great accomplishments for his brethren in faith; in part the French Revolution and the convention of the Great Sanhedrin by Napoleon. The foreign pressure which after the termination of the Wars of Liberation burdened most German states, and which already in the Vienna Congress resulted in complaints from the Jewish side, could not be beneficial for reforms, and only in the most recent time attempts to bridge the growing crevice between law and life, between holding on to religious forms and the separation of them, were renewed, in which the entire sphere of religious life in cult and teaching was defined as the area the reform was to improve. For this purpose conventions of rabbis were held. After such conventions were held at a smaller scale in Baden 1833 and in Nassau 1837, at the initiative of Ludwig Philippson he first convention of rabbis met in Braunschweig on June 11th 1844. Discussion at first concentrated on the 12 questions directed at the Great Sanhedrin by Napoleon, and the responses given, about the family, social relations, spiritual authority, business matters. The convention confirmed these answers and added a few comments, if further declared that the purpose of a Jewish oath was to call upon God, in order to abrogate the medieval form of the Jewish oath, and made suggestions regarding a revision of legislation concerning Jewish marriage, regarding the preparation of a new liturgy for synagogue and house and regarding the sabbath, which were entrusted to commissions to discuss in preparation for future conventions. But even these few results were disputed by a large part of Jewry (the Orthodox or Zealots), which not only questioned the competence of the assembly, but also declared every single decision as by its content contradicting proper Jewry, and therefore rejected them as being dangerous. The second convention of rabbis in Frankfurt/Main 1845 focussed namely on liturgy. It was decided to work toward a gradual removal of Hebrew language from religious service, to abolish several prayers, such as the prayer for the reestablishment of the Jewish Kingdom, and the return in the land of their forefathers, to compile new books of prayer for religious service and home. Further the proposals of the Berlin Reform Association and the Breslau Lay Synod were discussed. The mood of the assembly concerning the discussed matters was various. While some feared the destruction of Mosaism, many regretted that progress could not be achieved faster. This is why the Berlin Reform Association in 1846 distanced itself from the convention's efforts. At the third convention of rabbis in Breslau 1846 the focus was on the papers presented by the commission to compile a book of prayer, the establishment of Jewish theologian faculties, the celebration of the sabbath and of feasts, changes in circumcision and in funeral ceremonies. This time the convention was criticized by the Jewish liberal party which saw in most reforms not improvements, but hierarchical tendencies.
Toward the inner reform of the Jews also strove reform associations. So in the Grand Duchy of Hessen several emancipated Jews formed an association striving for the moral and civil improvement of the Jews, to work for the youth, for improved education of Jewish theologians and teachers, and it enjoyed the support of the government which recommended to every member of the diet to promote and support the association. An association of Jews in Frankfurt/Main in 1843 declared that they saw in Mosaism the potential for unlimited progress; for them the Talmud would have no authority whatsoever in either dogmatic nor practical respect; a Messiah who would lead the Jews back to Palestine was neither expected of them, nor desired; they know no other fatherland than the one they belong to by birth and by civil conditions. The Berlin Association for Reform of Judaism, in regard to her relation to the Jewish communiy in Berlin, desired the undivided unity of the community, but equal consideration of the various religious needss within the same, the permission of unlimited autonomy of the association within he community in administrating their own affairs. On March 24th 1849 it decided o move religious service from Saturday to Sunday; in 1850 they separated from the old Jewish synagogue. These efforts, mainly to be credited to Creizenach, Hldheim and others, gave cause to many disputes, among which the Frankfurt circumcision dispute of 1843 gained greater importance. Because several respected Jews refused to have their newly born sons cicumcised, while an expertise by Germany's most respected rabbis declared circumcision to be necessary, described non-compliance as an act of leaving the Jewish religious community and declared Moses' provision as a fundamental law of Jewry.
Finally a lot has been accomplished in the field of reform on the level of individual Jewish communities. As Mendelsohn and Jakobsohn earlier suggested German language prayer and sermon, and the introduction of organ and choire, later larger communities such as Hamburg, Frankfurt/Main and Offenbach set examples, and soon reputed preachers emerged among the Jews such as Jost, Hess, Creizenach, Weil, Johlsohn, Formstecher, Rehfuss, Geiger, Frankel, Auerbach, Adolf Jellinek and others. Of importance was also the New General Israelite Book of Hymns for Synagogues and the House, which was published in Hamburg and which was introduced on August 31st 1833 in the new Jewish temple in that city. The events of 1848 further stimulated the reform movement, but the Orthodox stubbornly resisted any kind of change. They were especially strict in regard to mixed marriages. The Community of Portuguese Jews in Hamburg excludes anyone who enters ino a mixed marriage. In order to introduce the desired reforms not only in life, but to study traditions and teaching in a both scientific and popular way, several magazines are published, so by Geiger, Zeitschrift für Jüdische Theologie, by Philippson Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, by Hess, Der Israelit des 19. Jahrhunderts, by Cohen, Archives israelites de France etc.
See : Jost, Geschichte der Israeliten (since the time of the Maccabeans), Berlin 1820-1829, 9 vols., Jost, Neuere Geschichte der Israeliten, 1846, Capefigue, Histoire philosophique des Juifs (since the fall of the Maccabean dynasty) Paris 1838, Grätz, Geschichte des Judenthums (from the end of the Jewish state to the conclusion of the Talmud), Berlin 1853, Depping, Les Juifs dans le moyen-age, Paris 1834, Meyer, Die Juden unserer Zeit, 1852, Dessauer, Geschichte der Juden (especially on civilization), 1845, Jost, Geschichte des Judenthums und seiner Secten, Leipzig 1853, Moses Morgoliouth, The history of the Jews in Great Britain, London 1851, 3 vols.

source in German, posted by Zeno


Meyers Grosses Conversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Juden
Jews (Israelites), the confessors of Mosaic faith. Their original name, mostly used in outward communication, was that of the Hebrews (Ebrews, in Hebrew : Ibrim), "those of beyond", because their progenitor Abraham had immigrated to Palestine from beyond the Euphrates. The more inwardly used name, hinting at the people's destiny, after their third progenitor, Jacob (Israel, "the one who strides for God"), the Israelites, emerged already at the beginning of their history, and the name "Jews" applies for the entire Israelite nation since the Babylonian exile, because most of the returnees used to be inhabitants of the Kingdom of Judah. Events prior to Babylonian captivity, strictly spoken, make up Hebrew or Israelite history, while from then on Jewish history begins.

I. Anthropological-Ethnographical Relations
About the anthropological position of the Jews at present clarity has not been established yet. Hitherto one wanted to regard the Jew as a typical representative of the Semitic race. Recent studies have stated that only a fraction of today's Jews, those living in North Africa, are of this type, which we, based on observations of modern Semitic peoples (Arabs, Syrians etc.) refer to as the Semitic type. Inhowfar one is justified to refer to a Jewish race has to be discussed further below. It is remarkable that the Jewish type, with rare obduracy, has been preserved over millennia. The Jews in general are characterized by a lengthy, hook-shaped curved nose, protruding humid eyes, a hick hanging or at least everted lower lip, firm, shiny hair, a slender chest and flat feet. The colour of skin ranges from dark brown via yellow to white; in general the Jew has dark teint, dark hair and dark eyes. The women tend to be darker than the men (Talko-Hryscewicz, Weissenberg, Ripley and others); this is contradicted by Fishberg (based on his examination of 2272 New York Jews). (here, and in the subsequent observations we have only the Jews of Europe, the Caucasus and North America in mind; about the Jews living on other continents no studies or only flawed ones have been made), which have examined c.6,000 individuals, dark hair, depending on the localiy, appears in 74-97 % of the cases, light hair in 0.5-3.2 %, red hair in 0.7-4.3 %, brown and black eyes in 59-89 %, grey eyes in 12-37 %, blue eues in 1.5-27 %. Half of all the cases (among New York's Jewish population 56.8 %) have dark hair and dark eyes. The beard is always lighter than the hair on the head, red beard hair is three times as frequent as red hair on the head. According to Fishberg's examination, the condition of the hair is 67 % straight, 26 % wave-shaped, 6 % curly round. Sculls : the cephalindex is around the cipher 82. The combination of measurements taken so far taken into account, over 80 % of the Jews have a scull the index of which is located between 78 and 85, 70 % between 79 and 84, and 50 % between 80 and 83. Such a homogenity of scull type has not been observed among any other civilized nation. The women in general have shorter heads than the men and do not show the same homogenity. Concerning their height, he Jews may be regarded as small; in Europe their average height is 1.63 m. The Jews are always shorter than the average of the people among which they live. Among races tending toward large height the difference will be greater than among races tending to shorter height. This inferiority in height by some is interpreted as an acquired characteristic, the consequence of unfavourable hygienic and social conditions under which the Jews had to live for centuries, especially in the Middle Ages. The same is blamed for their slim chests and low lung capacity which is characteristic for he Jews.
With such feebleness in their outward appearance of the Jews, it is remarkable that they develop great vitality. First, their mortality in all civilized nations is comparatively lower than that of the Non-Jews; this lower mortality mainly affects the group less han 15 years old. Also the number of stillbirths is much lower among the Jews. This has the consequence that the number of Jews in general grows stronger, respectively has grown stronger, than that of the Non-Jews. Their greater toughness corresponds a lower tendency toward illness, and therefore lower morbidity. This is apparent especially in the case of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, typhus, malaria, cholera, the plague and the pocks, all hese diseases affect the Jews more rarely, and their progress is a milder one. This difference is especially remarkable in case of the tuberculosis, despite the majority of the Jews living in dirty, unhygienic housing, or used to live under such conditions (ghettos). Only one infectious disease forms an exception, diphtheria; here Jews show a higher figure of mortality. Of the non-infectious affections, among the diseases affecting the organs of breathing and blood circulation, the kidneys, liver, intestines, bones and joints the susceptibility of the Jews by comparison is smaller. But they are moe susceptible to the green star (infectious glaucoma) and colour blindness. They contribute an conspicuously high share of the diabetics, hysteric, neurasthenic and the insane. Also conspicuous is the large number of the blind, especially of those born as blind and deaf-mute.
As the cause for their low susceptibility to certain diseases may be regarded their diet laws, the inner and pure family life and moderation in eating and drinking (of alcoholic beverages). On the other hand, their increased disposition toward certain other diseases is explained with pressing poverty, the dirt and misery of the ghettos, and the stressful sruggle for their existence. While all these factors, it is agreed, may contribute to a greater immunity respectively higher disposition toward certain diseases, they do not suffice to explain this remarkable phenomenon, and one can not help but think of the racial factor, i.e. a biological racial characteristic.
The European Jews are divided in two large groups, which are differentiated by tradition, rite, pronunciation of the Hebrew language and by their physical habit, in the Sephardim or southern European (Spanish-Portuguese) and the Ashkenasim or northern European (German-Polish) Jews. The Sephardim, who make up 90 % of the entire Jewry, have derived their name from an unknown country called Sepharad, into which the Jews fled when they were expelled from Jerusalem. Medieval rabbis assumed this land to be the Iberian peninsula, therefore all the Jews who in the course of the Middle Ages migrated from Spain to North Africa, the Balkan peninsula and the Levant, still today are referred to as the Spaniols. The Ashkenasim have derived their name from Ashkenas, the son of God (mentioned 1 Moses 10.3), and according to Jewish tradition shall refer to the Germanics, especially the Germans. Surprisingly the Sephardim and the Ashkenasim differ considerably in physical aspects. The former represent the finer, nobler type, with a slender body and deinty extremities, an exquisite lengthy head shape, a lengthy oval face, hook-shaped but finely formed nose and thin lips; the latter show less noble features, a large mouth, thick lips, a thick nose and more sturdy shape.
In regard to the origin of the type of European Jews, the research by Luschan recently has produced clarity. Already at an earlier time scholars had noted the high percentage of blond Jews. One believed to explain this fact, which is difficult to bring in correspondence with the Semitic origin of the Jews, simply by relations Jews in the course of the centuries had entered in with members of the blond (Teutonic) race. That frequent marriages between Jews and Non-Jewish elements have been concluded in all countries of Europe in the Middle Ages has been reported by history. Already during the period of Roman rule, according to Josephus, convertion to Judaism was not unusual. And as late as 1092 the Hungarian king Ladislas in his countries forbade marriages between Jews and Christian wives, but this degree does not seem to have had the desired impact, as bishop Robert of Gran in 1119 issued a semilar decree, as numerous Jews lived with female Christians in cohabitation, and as the Jewish religion in a number of years had gained thousands of new followers. Despite these many cases of intermingling in the Middle Ages, the high percentage of blond Jewish elements among the brunette population of Syria and Palestine was not explicable, also the assumption that it was the result of intermingling with blond crusaders did not satisfy. Then prehistoric research came to the aid. It turned out that Egyptian grave monuments already for the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. record for Palestine a tribe with light skin, blue eyes and blond hair, the Amorites, the great sons of Enak, who are repeatedly mentioned in the bible. They have to be regarded relatives of the blond Tamahu, appearing in the same source "the people of the men from the north", thus as members of the Aryan race. The blond elements among today's Jews may be led back to the intermingling of the Israelites with these men of the north. As far as the short heads of the present Jews ae concerned, which is in contrast to the long heads of the Semitic race, Luschan has raised the probability that it derives of the short heads common in Asia Minor, from whom the Armenians, the people with the shortest heads on the planet, have inherited the shape of their skulls. The Armenians also are characterized by almost general dark eyes, dark hair and a curved nose (as are the Jews). This short-heaed population of Asia Minor (Armenoids after Luschan, Alarodians after Hommel), which we find with the ame outward appearance on he Sendchirli Reliefs, should be identical with the Hittites (Kheta) of the bible, who by some authors are connected with the Mongols. Thus mainly three racial elements have contributed to the creation of the Jewish type : (1) the original Semitic tribe, (2) the Aryan Amorites, and (3) (and these most importantly) the (Mongolian ?) Hittites. As long as we do not possess any sculls of the ancient Hebrews, or any depictions true to nature from the beginning of Jewish history, we have to end with this hypothesis. Still one can talk of a Jewish race in the sense that a type which emerged from the mixture of various ethnic elements millennia ago, by consistent in-breeding or at least very limited intermingling has been maintained and fixated.
With more tenacity they have held on to certain Semitic characteristics such as greed, shrewdness, cleverness and the dislike for manual labour, characteristics which we frequently find among the Jews in our time. But among them we also find more noble character treats such as srong devotion to the family, ethical purity, moderation in pleasure, devotion to inherited religion and altruistic sentiment, not only for their brethren in faith. In the civilized nations of Central Europe the Jews live among the other population and enjoy the same rights as these. But already in Bohemia, and even more in Eastern Europe that take in a subordinate social position, and in uncivilized states such as Morocco, Tunis and Tripolis they live an existance not dissimilar to the undignified conditions in which they lived among us in the Middle Ages. They are squeezed into separate city quarters (ghettos, millah, hara), which are very dirty and are arranged as unhygienic as possible, have to wear special marks on their clothing and have to engage in the meanest activities. With incompatible tenacity the Jews in most cases hold on to the religion of their forefathers; they exercise circumcision, keep the sabbath, follow the laws of cleaning, and in part remain faithful to their dietary laws; during the religious service they follow the same rites as their ancestors etc. In general the Jews speak the vernacular of the people among whom they live. The Ashkenasim in Germany have created an own idiom, Jewish-German (see Jewish-German dialect), which is distinguished from the vernacular by the inclusion of many Hebrew loanwords and many other loanwords, has a duller vocalization and is spoken in a peculiar singing manner which includes lisping sounds. In general the Jews stay away from manual labour, they prefer occupations where less physical effort is required, and therefore prefer trade, businesses whee money is involved. In the humanities they show great perseverance and they have produced relatively more men of excellent stature than the Christians did. The areas in which the Jews are active in scientific respect are music, medicine, mathematics, philology and social sciences. The scholars they have produced are more of the talented kind than of the genial one.

Statistical Data. According to the most recent statistical publications, the number of Jews in the world is 10,597,250. Their distribution is as follows :

Russia 5,082,343 Caucasia 58,571 Canada 16,432
Germany 500,000 Siberia 38,447 United States 1,136,240
Austria-Hungary 1,994,378 Afghanistan 184,483 Mexico 1,000
France 86,000 Persia 35,000 Central America, Antilles 4,403
England 179,000 Palestine 78,000 Venezuela 411
Sweden-Norway 5,000 Arabia 20,000 Peru 498
Denmark 5,000 other Asiatic Turkey 77,500 Brazil 2,000
Neherlands 103.188 India 22,000 Dutch Guyana 1,256
Belgium 12,000 China 2,000 Argentina 7,015
Luxemburg 1,250 Russian Central Asia 12,729 other S. American Ctr. 1,000
Switzerland 12,534 ASIA total 524,682 AMERICA total 1,169,881
Italy 47,000
Spain 2,500 Morocco 150,000 New South Wales 6,447
Portugal 1,200 Algier 57,132 Victoria 5,820
Bosnia-Herzegovina 8,231 Tunis 45,000 South Australia 1,110
Bulgaria 28,397 Tripolis and Barka 10,000 Western Australia 850
Serbia 5,100 Egypt 25,300 Queensland 809
Romania 269,019 Abyssinia 50,000 Tasmania 328
Greece 8,350 South Africa 30,000 New Zealand 1,611
Turkey 82,217 AFRICA total 367,432 AUSTRALIA total 16,975
Crete 728
Cyprus and Malta 130
Gibraltar 2,000
EUROPE total 8,538,280

See also the statistical table to "Religious Map of the World"; the distribution of Jews in the German Empire is shown by a map in the article "Deutschland" (p.775, with text page). See : Alsberg, Rassenmischung im Judentum, Hamburg 1891, Andree, Zur Volkskunde der Juden, Bielefeld 1881; Buschan, Einfluss der Rasse auf die Form und Häufigkeit pathologischer Veränderungen, "Globus" vol.67 1895; Fishberg, Physical anthropology of the Jews (American Anthropologist vols.4 and 5, 1902 and 1903; Hoppe, Krankheiten und Sterblichkeit bei Juden und Nichtjuden, Berlin 1903; Jacobs, on the racial characteristics of modern Jews (Journal of Anthropology Institute of Great Britain and Ireland vol.15 1886, vol.19 1890) and Studies of Jewish statistics (London 1891); Judt, Die Juden als Rasse (German edition Berlin 1903), Lombroso, Der Antisemitismus und die Juden (German edition Leipzig 1894), von Luschan, Die anthropologische Stellung der Juden (im Korespondenzblatt der Deutschen anthropologischen Gesellschaft 1893), Weissenburg, Die südrussischen Juden (Archiv für Anthropologie vol.23 1895), Ripley, The races of Europe, chapter 14, The Jews and Semites, London 1900, H. Singer, Allgemeine und offizielle Krankheislehre der Juden, Leipzig 1904; Stratz, Was sind die Juden ?, Wien 1903; Nossig, Jüdische Statistik, Berlin 1903; "Zeitschrift für Demographie und Statistik der Juden" (edited by A. Ruppin, Berlin 1905f).

History of the People of Israel
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The Jews among the Muslims in Asia and Africa . With the expansion of Islam for the Jews a period of vivid scholarly activity begins. Arabia since ancient times has been inhabited by Jewish tribes, of whom those dwelling in Yemen were engaged in the trade between Occident and Orient. Their brethren to the north lived a more agricultural, often irregular life of bedouins. In religious matters they sought instruction and representation among the Palestinian and Babylonian schoolmasters. A king of Yemen, as later is entire people, shall have converted to Judaism, and shall have begun a Jewish dynasty. Muhammad, who learned from Jews and who deribed much of the Koran from Judaism, in writing and action has displayed hatred of the Jews, as did his successor Omar. In all countries which Omar submitted in a quick campaign, the infidels he was not able to convert, by the so-called Covenant of Omar were limited in their practice of religion and in their ability of hold office, had to wear diastinctive dress and had to pay a per-capita tax and a property tax. But the Muslims paid respect to Jews who had gained merit. The Jews were not allowed to enter Mecca and Medina. As Islam charged excessive taxes for property owned by Non-Jews, they focussed more on trade. Harun al-Raschid (c. 800) favoured the Jews, who were still politically represented by the exilarch, juridically and religiously by the Geonim (see Gaon). Of these Geonim, following the conquest of Firuz Shapur, Mar Isak was the first to function in Sura. Party disputes caused the emergence of the Anti-Rabbinic sect of the Karaites (see there) under Anan ben David (761). With the emergence of Karaitism coincides the alleged conversion of the Khazars (Kusarim) on the Volga, and of their king Bulan (731). This Jewish kingdom was defeated in 969 by Grand Prince Svyatoslav of Kiev, and after renewed insurrection in 1016 dissolved by Russians and Byzantinians.
In the lands on the Euphrates Jews lived in New-Ninive (Mosul) and Baghdad, protected by the Caliphs. Muhammad Almuktafi (1136-1160) imposed an exilarch for the Caliphat who was responsible for the appointment of officials and the collection of dues. The Jews in Yemen in 1172 were forced by the Shi'ites to convert to Islam. The Egyptian Jews were under Nagid, a prince, who was financed by he communities and who had he same responsibilities as the Babylonian exilarch. In Asia Minor, Syria and Palstine, in the areas ruled by Christians fewer Jews were counted then in those ruled by Islam. In Christian Antioch, the few Jews were glass workers; the numerous Jews in Tyre engaged in agriculture; those in and around Palmyra proved military instincts in feuds with both Christians and Muslims, among the Jews of Damascus were many scholars of the Talmud. Caused by disputes regarding the election of an exilarch, the government abolished the office and thus terminated the unity of the Oriental Jews. The situation of the Jews did not deteriorate after the Mongol conquest 1258.
The Jews in the Middle Ages until their Expulsion from Spain and Portugal . With the population of Spain, where Jews lived since Roman times, they lived in peace, until the Catholic clergy (Council of Iliberis 306) tried to loosen the amiable relations. The Aryan Visigoths (since 419) granted them equal rights and employed them in public service. Limitations implemented by Catholic King Reccared (590), forced conversion and expulsion under Sisebut (612), Chintila (638) and the era of terror under Egica (693) changed the happy relation, which only was restored after the Battle of Jerez de la Frontera (711). The Arabs granted to the Jews, who only had to pay a per capita tax, freedom of religion and autonomous jurisdiction. In these times of peace they could focus their energies in the service of flourishing science, and they engaged in philosophy, philology and poetry, in addition to civil professions. The learned medical doctor Chisdai ben Isak, under the Caliphs Abd er Rahman III. and Alhakim (961-976) was in charge of finances; has the Nasi (head) of the Jews he was highly respected. In this office, under Caliph Hashim, he was succeeded by the owner of a large silk weaving factory, Jacob ibn Gau. The dependence of the Jews from Oriental academies ceased, when the Talmudian studies by Moses ben Chanoch of Cordoba were distributed. In Maklaga, to where he had fled when the Berbers devastated Cordoba around 1020, Samuel ha Levi, called Hanagid, "the Prince" (1027-1055) exercised the office of Vezir; similar honours were held by other Jews. Temporarily the Jews of Granada (1066) suffered persecution, but in the remainder of Spain in general they were protected. Alfons VI. of Castile employed Jews as diplomats, enforced equality of the Jews in front of the law, for his person and policy he trusted in his Jewish medical doctor, and he did not care about the displeasure of Pope Gregory VII., who at the Council of Rome 1078 had implemented new restrictions. When he conquered Toledo (1085), he confirmed the Jews of Toledo their written privileges. Under the Almoravids, Jews were state officials and medical doctors, while under the Almohads in southern Spain they were forced to convert to Islam or go into exile. Nonetheless, Jewish literature continued to flourish (see Jewish literature p.346), because Castile, Leon, Aragon and Navarra mostly provided a secure home to the Jews. In Toledo lived more than 12,000 Jews, under Alfonso VIII. (1170-1214) they were promoted because of their education and talent. Alfonso X. (1252-1282) had a Jewish personal physician and had his (Allfonsine) astronomical tables worked by Jews. In Aragon, which originally had protected them, under Jacob I., instigated by the Dominicans, even after the fruitless disputation of Barcelona (1263) between Nachmanides and the convert Pablo Christiani, conversion attempts and oppression lasted on. On the other hand, a few cases of persecution disregarded, life was calm and bearable for the Jews of Spain except for the atrocities committed in the civil war between Peter the Cruel and Henry of Trastamara (1366-1369), in which also Jews participated. In 1391 the Archbishop of Niebla preached against the Jews in Sevilla, and they were attacked by the mob here, in Cordoba, Gerona, Ascalona, Valencia, Barcelona and in other Spanish cities and on the Balearic islands. Those who escaped ruin in most cases fled to North Africa, and hey were more fortunate than many of their Spanish brethren, who accepted baptism to appear to be Christian, because these New Christians (Anussim, Maranos; see there) were treated with suspicion, so that they often chose to flee or, having returned to their original faith, shared the fate of their brethren in faith, for which for centuries the fires of the autodafe were burning at the stake. In 1412 pushed into special Jewish city quarters (Juderias), humiliated by conversion attempts (among others Disputation of Tortosa February 1313 to November 1414, 68 sessions), laws for the Jews and signs they had to wear on their clothing, they had to regard in the inquisition introduced in 1481 their mortal enemy. After the fall of Granada, Grand Inquisitor Torquemada, despite the efforts of highly respected minister of finances Isal Abarbanel (see there) got from King Ferdinand V. an expulsion decree on March 31st 1492 which ran out on August 2nd, according to which 300,000 Jews had to emigrae, without a home and without possessions. They fled to Morocco, the Barbary, Italy, Turkey and Portugal, poor and despised, abandoned to nameless misery. In Portugal the good days which the Jews had enjoyed namely under Sancho II. (1223-1245) and Dionysius (1279-1325) ended with Alfonso V. (died 1481). King John II. had accepted the refugees from Spain for 8 months against large payment, but, influenced by fanatic clergy, did not tolerate them any longer in the country, which they had to leave under the at first benign (toward the Jews) Manuel II. in 1498. The inquisition in Spain and Portugal persecuted Crypto-Jews until the end of the 17th century, so hat many of them emigrated into the Netherlands.
In the Byzantinian Empire Justinian (527-565) reduced the privileges of the Jews, placed them on the same level as heretics, excluded them from all honorable offices which did not come with significant burdens, and attempted to convert them. This policy was continued by his successors Justinus II., Heraclios and Leo the Isaurian. After the expulsion of the Persians, the side of whom the Jews had taken, in 628, just before Palestine, Syria and Egypt were conquered by the Arabs, Heraclios renewed Hadrian's edict according to which no Jew was allowed to enter Jerusalem, and caused many Jews to emigrate to Egypt. At the end of the 8th century, many Jews moved to the land of the Khazars. The later events in the Byzantine Empire, which was home to many Jewish communities in Thessaly, Macedonia, Thrace, also affected the Jews in Corinth, Lepanto, Negroponte, Salonica, Gallipoli, on Mytilene, Chios, Samos, Rhodos, in Thebes, where skilled Jewish producers of silk and purple lived, in Constantinople, where the mob frequently abused the Jews without suffering retribution.
The establishment of the Ostrogoth Kingdom in Italy could not worsen the situation of the Jews much. Jews already were numerous in Rome, Milan, Genoa, Verona, Ravenna, Naples, Salerno, Trani, Otranto, Tarent, Palermo, Messina, Agrigento and in other places, less frequent in places in the north without business such as Lucca, Mantua, Pisa and Venice. Also Lombard rule was not disadvantageous to them. They also lived calmly under the Frankish kings, attempts to convert them and local persecutions (Bologna 1171) disregarded. Later they had to pay homage to every new emperor and pope, under whose protection they lived. Since the 13th century they had to wear marks, since the 15th century they had to live in closed-off city quarters (ghettos). Completely free they later lived in Venice and Livorno under Ferdinand I. King Robert of Naples favored them much, and several popes have treated them, by the standards of the time, mildly. Gregory VII., Innocent III. who suspected them of secret communication with the Albigensians and who pushed through harsh decisions against them in the councils, and who won over princes Raimond VI. of Toulouse and Roger of Beziers against them, and others threated them in hostile manner. Under the protection of educated rulers, in Italy important Jewish scholars and poets thrived, the Jewish youth studied at universities, Italy's trade was much supported by the Jews. From the island of Sicily, where they have lived freely under Arabs and Normans, they were expelled in 1493 by Ferdinand the Catholic.
Jews have visited the territory of the Frankish Kingdom probably already during the time of Caesar. There rights have not been reduced by the oldest Frankish and Burgundian constitution. Jews were craftsmen, farmers, merchants, who often owned their own ships, and medical doctors. In southern France, in the Provence and in Languedoc the Jews were in spiritual communication with their brethren in faith in Spain, were engaged in agriculture and trade, but were not rarely molested by the moods of the counts and the attempts of the bishops to convert them (Agobard of Lyon 831, his successor Amulo 846). Charlemagne, with clear view, recognized the importance of his Jewish subjects and contributed to their social elevation; he added a Jew to the embassy to Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Louis the Pious protected the Jews against arrogations of his vassalls and of the clergy, promoted their trade and business and had their privileges supervised by a "master of the Jews". After the Treaty of Verdun 843 the Jews in France, in Limoges, Lyon and elsewhere, had to suffer, especially during the crusades. The Capetians Louis VI. (1108-1137) and Louis VII. (1137-1180) attempted to protect them, granted them extended rights and their own mayors (prevots). With Philipe Auguste, who in the beginning had favored them, their luck changed. Imprisoned, deprived of their possessions, accused of crimes they had not committed, for instance in Blois, where on May 26th 1171 30 martyrs were burned, in 1181 they were expelled from Paris, 1191 from the territory of Bray. They were also chased out of the baronies, if they no longer could hand over items from their treasures. But Philippe Auguse, in need of money, called them back into the country, and them treated them in a milder manner. Now their residence was restricted and they were serfs owned by their protector. The hatred which vexed them more and more, which destroyed their writings, which tried to exclude them from the practice of medicine, erupted in 1306 under Philippe IV. the beautiful, who expelled them, 100,000 strong, from France. Louis X. permitted their return (1315), but only under harsh conditions. Their stay was full of suffering and brief, as they were subjected to excesses committed by fanatic hordes of peasants and herdsmen (pastoureaux or pastorels) in 1320, and again in 1321 when they were accused of having instigated lepers to poison the wells, again in 1349 at the time of the Black Death, and finally in 1394 they were forever expelled by Charles VI. In individual parts of the country (in the papal district of Venaissin, with the cities of Avignon and Carpentras), Jews remained. Those who were expelled found an insecure refuge in Germany, Italy and Poland. Louis XII. in 1501 expelled the Jews from the Provence.
Similarly sad was the fate of the Jews in those territories of France which at that time belonged to England (Normandy, Bretagne, Anjou, Touraine, Maine, Guyenne, Poitou, Gascogne) and in England itself. Already Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury (669-691) influenced the Christians against them. Edward the Confessor in 1041 declared the Jews and their possessions property of the crown. William the Conqueror forced Jews who had converted o Christianity to return to Judaism, as he did not want his revenue reduced in favour of the church. They became ever more indispensable to the kings, and hated by the people, because they were prosperous. At the day of the coronation of King Richard the Lion-hearted (Sept. 3 1189) the hatred erupted into violence. The Jews who had wanted to gibve presents to the king, but who had been prevented from seeing him at the order of the Archbishop of Canterbury, were attacked by the mob, which hen plundered and murdered the Jews of London. Richard held the perpetrators responsible. When he left the country with the crusaders, who also in England began their war for their faith with taking on the local Jews, the Jewish communities in Norwich, York and elsewhere suffered the same fate as did the Jews of London, who later (1264) again suffered persecution. After oppression under John Lackland and Henry III., an edict of Edward I. in 1290 forever expelled hem from England.
Coming from France and Italy, Jews may have reached Germany early, mostly the southern and central parts of the country, because already for 321 Jews are documented in Cologne, in Mainz in the 9th century, in Worms, Magdeburg, Merseburg and Regensburg in the 10th, in Trier, Speyer in the 11th century; they formed many communities in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Austria, while they appear in central and northern Germany from the 13th century onward only in isolated cases. Before the crusades their situation was tolerable, in professional activity they competed with the Christians, and socially interacted with them. The privileges which Bishop Rüdiger Huozmann of Speyer granted to the Jews of Speyer (1084), and which Emperor Henry IV. confirmed at the request of the Jews (1090) granted them trade privileges in the entire Empire, separate jurisdiction, the right to acquire parcels of land, to keep Christian servants, to give the oath in accordance to Jewish law, protected them against being asked to stand trial by ordeal etc. Similar privileges were issued to the Jews of other cities, but not to all Jews in the Empire. Only after the terror phase of the crusades the Emperors, first Henry IV. in the peace of 1103, then Conrad III. during he Second Crusade, declared their protection over them. This protection developd into the so-called Kammerknechtschaft of all the Jews in the Empire. As "servi camerae" they were to enjoy Imperial protection and in return pay tax to the treasury. The tax was lasting, the protection illusory. Since the middle of the 14th century the principle was applied, that life and property belonged to the jews only "precario" (based on request), and that the Emperor was free to take either any time. At the occasion of any coronation they had to pay coronation tax (first collected by Frederick I. in Goslar 1155; since the 15th century regularly collected) and have the protection renewed. The Emperor could transfer this regalium (royal right) to others (territorial lords, bishops, cities), enfief them with it or pawn it, alsp he could permit them "to keep Jews". So over time hey became chamber servants of territorial lords or cities, and limited in their freedom. In addition to the tax (which was not the same at every place), which was listed in the letter of protection, other fees were added, such as the golden sacrificial penny, and extraordinary taxes in times when the Emperor underwent financial problems. In he insecure times of the Middle Ages Jews, for their travels, could gain safe passage from their protectors in return for paying a fee. This fee, without a corresponding service, was collected as "Leibzoll" until he end of the 18h century, and here or there still existed at the beginning of the 19th century. By excluding the Jews from the guilds, the Jews who prior to the crusades still had taken charge of trade and communication with other parts of he world, were reduced to pernicious retail trade, pawnshops and money transactions. The Imperial police ordinnance of 1530 attempted to remove excesses of this practice, as it demanded them to earn a living by manual labour. In religious and social respect, the Jews suffered from many restrictions. They lived in separate parts of town (Judengasse); they were humiliated and abused in image, word and action, often only left them the choice between death and baptism, bothered them with attempts of conversion, ordered them during Passiontide not to show hemselves in public places, tried to exclude them from any communion with Christians, forbade them to keep Christian servants, forbade Jewish physicians to treat Christian patients and ordered them to wear signs, the shape and colour of which was determined by specifc decrees.
With admirable courage the Jews of Germany have suffered atrocities and persecutions they were exposed to in the 11th to 16th centuries. In 1012 Henry II. expelled them from Mainz. The crusaders plundered, baptised or murdered them to the greater glory of God and annihilated the communities in Speyer, Worms, Mainz, in the dioceses of Cologne, Trier, Metz, Regensburg, Prague and elsewhere. Soon after the Jews seem to have returned, and to have lived peacefully until the Second Crusade. Emperor Henry IV. permitted the forcibly baptized Jews to return to their old faith and charged princes and burghers in Mainz to prevent similar atrocities (1103). But such effort was in vain. During the Second Crusade they were persecuted in order to break their dominance in trade (1146); during the 13th century (Erfurt 1221, Fulda 1235, München 1285, on the Rhine 1283-1288) because they were accused of ritual murders committed on Christians. In 1298 146 communities in Franconia, Bavaria and Austria were massacred, in order to take revenge for the alleged desecration of hosts, and "Kings Armleather" slew them 1336-1337 on the Rhine, in the Alsace, in Swabia, Franconia, Bohemia and Austria. In 1348-1349 they, these onerous creditors, were accused of poisoning the wells, and in hundreds of places one freed oneself of debts owed to Jews by committing mass murder. A few decades after this social revolution they were again tolerated as indispensable in German territories and cities, but discriminated against, and tormented, already at the end of the 14th century their expulsion from individual places began. Following the usual plundering, mainly based on decisions of the authorities, Jews were expelled from Franconia and Swabia in 1384 and 1385, from the diocesis of Trier in 1418, from Mainz Stift in 1420, from Austria under Archduke Albrecht in 1420 and 1421, from Freiburg/Breisgau 1424, from Zürich 1424 and 1435, from Cologne 1426, from Saxony 1432, from Heilbronn, Speyer and Zürich 1435, from Mainz 1438, from Augsburg 1439, from all of Bavaria in 1450, and upon the initiative of Franciscan wandering monk John of Capistrano 1452-1455 from Silesia, from Mecklenburg in 1492, from Magdeburg Archstift in 1493, from Nürnberg and Ulm in 1499. Also Switzerland, where Jews settled in the 12th and 13th century, was the site for persecutions of Jews since 1348, Styria since 1496 (Winterthur and Schaffhausen 1401, Zürich 1442 (where they later were permitted the right of residence in 1451 and 1490), Geneva 1490, Thurgau 1491. The Council of Basel 1431 made obligatory an active policy aiming at the conversion of the Jews.
In Poland and Lithuania the situation f the Jews under Casimir III. was favourable, and refugees from other countries in 1349 found here a new home. But later heir rights were restricted. Even Russia, where Jews are documented since the 10th century, expelled them in the 15th century. From Hungary they were expelled in 1526. With the humiliation which worsened since the 13th century, the spiritual life of the Jews, which until then had unfolded, headed toward a gradual ruin. Forced into servitude, humiliated, without fatherland and rights, the Jew still remained more free and ethically more pure than his oppressor. In his religious literature in the time of suffering he found the spirit of fraternity and willingness to sacrifice, sense of community, industry, generosity, and most of all the rare power to endure, which was tested frequently until into recent times.
History of the Jews in the Modern Era. Politically and spiritually unfree we find the Jews at the beginning of the 16th century in Arabia, where they still live in the Hejaz, in Persia, Afghanistan, India, China, in Buchara, where they are workers in the silk and metal industry, in Tatary and in Abyssinia. They had moved to North Africa when they were persecuted on the Iberian peninsula, and had settled in numerous Jewish communities in Algier, Oran, Tlemcen, Tetouan and Tunis. In Morocco, temporary civil freedom was followed by oppression and persecution. In Algier heir sad condition was improved in 1830 by France, which in 1870 granted them the right of citizenship. Turkey, where Spanish Jews went and formed large communities in Constantinople, Salonica, Gallipoli, Smyrna, Adrianople, Damascus and other places, shows us the Jews as influential merchants and producers, who, favoured by the Sultans (Selim, Sulayman I.) even rose to state offices (Joseph Naxi, died 1579, elevated to Duke of Naxos). Here the early on flourishing scientific study of the Kabbala degenerated, and from 1648 onward provided the basis for the Messianic movement under Sabbatai Zwi. The Jews in Turkey and Palestine are protected from oppression by the state by a Ferman which was issued in 1840 upon the initiative of Moses Montefiore, when they were accused to have murdered Father Thomas in Damascus. To Italy the inquisition brought harsh laws for the treatment of Jews; for Jewish scripture after the introduction of censorship the stake was instituted (for instance in Rome, Venice, Bologna 1553-1560), for the Jews themselves the ghettos. Molested by attempts to convert them, until the end of he 16th century expelled from individual cities, he situation only changed when the unified kingdom granted them full emancipation. In Switzerland, where in modern history they only had been tolerated in Endingen and Lengenau, they had been expelled from Basel in 1616, from Appenzell in 1622, from Zürich in 1634, from Schaffhausen in 1655. Peter I. readmitted the Jews to Russia, Elizabeth expelled them (1643), Catherine II. again permitted them to settle in the country. The Jews in Poland, most of whom have their roots in Germany, at the beginning of the 17th century were in a good political position, were in control of trade, were engaged in agriculture, innkeeping and crafts and had their own jurisdiction. In 1648 the Cossack Rebellion under Khmelnicki decimated the flourishing communities in Poland, Podolia, Volhynia, Ukraine and Lithuania. Fleeing the agents of the inquisition, Crypto-Jews and Jews found refuge in France (Bayonne and Bordeaux 1550) and in Holland; they established communities in the Netherlands in which they helped raise science, trade and industry. In England they were readmitted after the learned Menasse ben Israel had spoken for them to Cromwell (1655), while on the Iberian peninsula the autodafes for Jews and heretics continued. Dutch Jews in 1642 emigrated to Brazil, English [!] Jews 1639-1664 to Cayenne.
In Germany Humanism and the freer spirit brought forward by the Reformation as well as the request by Martin Luther (in his publication of 1523 that "Jesus was born a Jew") to treat the Jews as friends in blood and as brethren, to treat them with Christian love, to treat them in the spirit of friendship, to work with them, did not benefit the oppressed. They still were accused to have desecrated hosts (Joachim of Brandenburg in 1510 for this offense had burned 30 Jews in Berlin, and had all others expelled from the country) and to have murdered Christians, accepted only a few, and at some places did not tolerate them at all. The guilds and many branches of trade were barred to them; the most burdensome and humiliating laws remained in force, manifold taxes (over 60 different) were collected from them. Despite Imperial protection granted to them by Charles V., in 1551 they were expelled from Bavaria, 1555 from the Palatine, in 1573 from the Mark Brandenburg, in 1670 from the Austrian lands. The Austrian Jews in 1671 were accepted into the Mark Brandenburg by Friedrich Wilhelm. Intolerant ordinnances for the Jews are found until the middle of the 18th century. The begin of spiritual and political liberation of the Jews falls into the last quarter of the 18th century, when Moses Mendelsohn with equally-minded friends such as Dohm and Lessing indefatigably worked for the improvement of their social condition and for political emancipation in Germany, France, England and the Netherlands. The conditions of the time favored these efforts. Following he model set by the United States of North America, the French National Assembly, where Mirabeau spoke for the Jews, where granted emancipation on Sept. 28th 1791. Napoleon, by convening an assembly of notables under the presidency of Furtado in 1806 and by the formation of the Grand Sanhedrin composed of 71 persons and presided by David Sinzheim, regulated theitr affairs, and given them a consistorial constitution which is still in force. While their right of citizenship has been temporarily restricted (1808), in the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 it was not restricted, but instead widened. Similar progress the emancipation of the Jews made in Belgium and Hlland after their annexation into France, where full emancipation was granted by the basic law of 1814; in the same year they were emancipated in Denmark.
The Russian government in 1805 and 1809 granted the Jews commercial freedoms, permitted them to attend institutions of higher learning, promoted he establishment of Jewish schools and permtted the esablishment of Jewish colonies near Nikolaev, where Jews, as in Caucasia and Georgiam engage in agriculture. The harsh measures against Polish subjects of Jewish faith may be explained more by political reasons than by hostility toward their faith; to the latter however the Jews of St. Petersburg owe their harsh treatment, those of Kiev their expulsion (1843). Alexander II. spent effort in order to improve the situation of the Jews. Shortly after his death (March 13 1881), in the south of Russia persecutions of Jews erupted, which resulted in poverty and exile for hundreds of thousands of Jewish craftsmen and farmers. The cruel limitations on freedom of movement, engagement in agriculture and in studies, implemented since May 1882, expulsions with the subsesequent economic and social ruination forced those hit hardest to emigrate and, with the aid of their brethren in faih, to find a new homeland. They emigrated to Palestine, England, America, Australia and Argentina, where Baron Moritz von Hirsch in generous manner established colonies for them. As in Russia, where as late as 1903 horrible massacres of Jews took place in Kishinev and Homel, in Romania, which ignores the demand of the Treaty of Berlin 1878 to grant equal rights to all citizens, the Jews are subjected to harsh special legislation. They have escaped this pressure by emigrating en masse. In Austria the principles of Joseph II.'s edict of toleration (1782), which aimed at the elevation of the oppressed people, and which wanted to enduce them to engage in agriculture and crafts, and to accept German culture and German customs, only gradually have been implemented. Today the Jews of Austria enjoy rights equal to those of the other citizens. Germany was pressed to emancipate the Jews by the French Revolution. After it was implemented in parts of Germany under French control already in 1808, it was implemented in Hessen 1808, Frankfurt 1811, Baden (1808 and 1811), Mecklenburg (1813) and in Prussia by the Edict of March 11th 1812. During the Wars of Liberation, Jews, by heroic courage and willingness to sacrifice have shown hemselves worthy and capable to be German citizens. But after the victory, attempts were made to cut back on their emancipation. Despite article 16 of the German Federal Act which stipulated that the situation of the Jews had to be regulated in a corresponding manner, such regulation in he individual states was introduced only gradually. While some governments (Hessen, Mecklenburg, Prussia) introduced new restrictions, others (Hannover, Frankfurt, Hamburg) deprived them of their citizenship. Württemberg emancipated them in 1828, Electoral Hessen in 1833. The main protagonist of the emancipation of his brethren in faith was Gabriel Riessler. The German constitution of 1848 determined that rights of citizenship and civil righs could not be made conditional on or limited by religious faith, a principle which the present Imperial law of July 3 1869 concerning the equality of all confessions in regard to rights of citizenship and civil rights, in Germany has achieved general implementation. An Anti-Jewish movement which grew since 1874, which also has spread into Non-German countries, the so-called Anti-Semitism, strives for the abolition of this emancipation. It has appeared in form of he mob riots in southern Russia (1881, 1903), the anti-Jewish propaganda based on superstition in Hungary (1883) and the movement hostile to Jews in France (Dreyfus trial), Algiers, Romania and elsewhere. All civilised states of Europe, with the exception of Russia, Romania and America, have placed their Jewish subjects at an equal state to that of their other citizens, only in the despotically governed countries of Asia and Africa the Jews mostly are till in the state of unfreedom, so that oppression and excesses by the mob against them have been registered in recent times.
With the elevation of outer conditions, also the inner conditions of the Jews have developed, communal life, schooling and Jewish science. To be mentioned are the Jaconson School in Seesen founded by the president of the Westphalian Jewish consistory in Kassel, Israel Jacobson, the Franz School in Dessau, the Philanthropin in Frankfurt/Main, the Free School in Berlin, the Samson School in Wolfenbüttel, the Wilhelm School in Breslau and others, of which those in Seesen, Wolfenbüttel and Frankfurt have been turned into real schools, and which still flourish. For the ducation of teachers, seminaries have been established in Münster, Kassel, Hannover, Berlin, Würzburg and Cologne), for that of rabbis colleges. Charities take care of oppressed brethren in faith and of emigrants, such as the Alliance Israelite in Paris, the Anglo-Jewish Association, the Jewish Colonization Association in London, the Israelitische Alliance in Wien and the Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden. The Zentralverein deutscher Staatsb&uum;rger jüdichen Glaubens (Central Society of German Citizens of Jewish Faith) strives to maintain the rights of citizenship, and the Deutsch-israelitischer Gemeindebund strives to promote the common interests of the German Jewry. The Party of Zionists tries to address the miserable situation of the Jews in Russia, Galicia, Romania and elsewhere, and to elsewhere create a legally secure homeland for the persecuted.
Literature The history of the people of Israel, except for the general works on history by Max Duncker, L. von Ranke, Maspero, Ed. Meyer, G. Weber, Helmolt and others is scientifically dealt with in : H. Ewald, Geschichte des Volkes Israel (until Bar Kochba, 3rd ed., Göttingen 1864-1868, 7 vols.), B. Stade, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, vol.1 in 2nd ed. Berlin 1885, vol.2 from the Greek time onward by O. Holtzmann 1888), E. Renan, Histoire du Peuple d'Israel, Paris 1887-1894, 5 vols., in German by Schälsky, Berlin 1894, 5 vols.), Wellhausen, Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (5th edition Berlin 1899), and Israelitische und jüdische Geschichte (5th ed. Berlin 1904), Winckler, Völker und Staaten des alten Orients, vol.2, Geschichte Israels in Einzeldarstellungen (Leipzig 1895-1900, 1st and 2nd part); further by Klostermann (München 1896), W. Schulze (Berlin 1897), Buhl, Die sozialen Verhältnisse der Israeliten, Berlin 1899, Guthe (2nd ed. Tübingen 1904), Cornill (Chicago 1898), Budde, Die Religion Israels bis zur Verbannung, Giessen 1900, Schall, Die Staatsverfassung der Juden, Leipzig 1896 and others. For post-biblical history of the Jews see the works of Zunz, Jost, Herzfeld, Steinschneider, Grätz and Güdemann, as S. Cassel's article in Ersch and Gruber's Enzyklopäl;die 2nd section volume 27.
See also for general history : D. Cassel, Lehrbuch für jüdische Geschichte und Literatur, Leipzig 1879, Bäck, Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes und seiner Literatur, 2nd ed. Frankfurt 1894, Baun, Geschichte der Juden und ihrer Literatur, 2nd ed. Breslau 1896-1899, 2 vols., Neubauer, Medieval Jewish Chronicles, vols. 1 and 2, Oxford 1887 and 1896, Depping, Les juifs dans le moyen-age, 2nd ed. Paris 1844, in German Stuttgart 1834, Abrahams, Jewish life in the Middle Ages, London 1896, The Jewish Encyclopedia, New York 1901ff.; for the time from 175 B.C. to 135 A.D. : Schürer, Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 4th edition Leipzig 1901ff., for Rome and Italy : Berliner, Geschichte der Juden in Rom, Frankfurt 1893, 2 vols., Vogelstein and Rieger, Geschichte der Juden in Rom, Berlin 1895-1896, 2 vols., for the history of the Jews in the Muslim countries : A. Geiger, Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judentum aufgenommen ? 2nd ed. Leipzig 1902, Hirschfeld, Beiträge zur Erklärung des Koran, Leipzig 1886; for Germany and Austria : Stobbe, Die Juden in Deutschland während des Mittelalters, Braunschweig 1866, Aronius, Regesten zur Geschichte der Juden im fränkischen und deutschen Reich (until 1273) Berlin 1887-1892.
Sources on the history of the Jews in Germany : Höniger, Das Judenschreinsbuch der Laurenzpfarre in Köln, Berlin 1888, Neubauer and Stern, Hebräische Berichte über die Judenverfolgungen während der Kreuzzüge (in German by Bär, Berlin 1892), Salfeld, Das Martyrologium des Nürnberger Memorbuches (Berlin 1898), Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland, edited by L. Geiger, Braunschweig 1887-1892, 5 vols., M. Stern, Quellenkunde zur Geschichte der deutschen Juden, Kiel 1892, vol.1 : Die Zeitschriftenliteratur, Klaus, Die Juden im deutschen Mittelalter, in "Deutsche Geschichtsblätter" vol.2 p.241ff., Gotha 1901, Kohut, Geschichte der deutschen Juden, Berlin 1899, Wertheimer, Die Juden in Österreich, Leipzig 1842, Scherer, Die Rechtsverhältnisse der Juden in den deutsch-österreichischen Ländern, Leipzig 1901, Liebe, Das Judentum in der deutschen Vergangenheit, Leipzig 1903, for Switzerland : Ulrich, Sammlung jüdischer Geschichten, Zürich 1770, Augusta Steinberg, Studien zur Geschichte der Juden in der Schweiz, Zürich 1903; for Spain Kayserling, Geschichte der Juden in Spanien und Portugal, Berln 1861-1867, 2 vols., Bloch, Die Juden in Spanien, Leipzig 1875, for England : Goldschmidt, Geschichte der JUden in England (part 1 : 11th nd 12h century, Leipzig 1886), Schaible, Die Juden in England, Karlsruhe 1890, for France : Gross, Gallia Judaica, Dictionnaire geographique de la France, Paris 1897, and Kahn, Histoire de la communaute israelite de Paris, Paris 1885-1888, 5 vols., for Poland Wettstein, Quellenschriften zur Geschichte der Juden in Polen, Krakau 1892, for America Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, New York 1893ff. Further contributions to Jewish history are found in "Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums" founded in 1851 by Frankel, Breslau, now publication of the Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaft des Judentums, in Berliner's "Magazin für die Wissenschaft des Judentums" Berlin since 1874, in the "Revue des etudes juives", Paris 1880ff., the "Jewish Quarterly Review" in London, the "Publications of the Anglo-Jewish Exhibition" London. A yearly review on he political bd social situation of the Jews in the present time is given by M. Philippson in the "Jahrbuch für jüdische Geschichte und Literatur", Berlin 1898f. see also the anthropological and statistical literature listed further above.

source in German, posted by Zeno






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