Nejd, 1902-1925

Administration . From 1887 to 1902, Nejd was administrated as a province of Shammar. In 1902 Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud retook Riyadh and reestablished the Emirate of Nejd. In 1914, Al Hasa (hitherto part of the Ottoman Empire) was annexed. The ruler then was referred to as Emir of Nejd and al Hasa. In 1921 Jebel Shammar was annexed. In 1921 the Emirate of Nejd was elevated to Sultanate of Nejd. The Hejaz was conquered in 1924-1925, Asir annexed shortly after.

Foreign Policy . During World War I, Ibn Saud was a British protege. He was a competitor of the Hashemites, who in the aftermath of the Arab Revolt, aimed at establishing a unified Arab state which not only conflicted with Ibn Saud's plans, but also with those of the French who wanted Syria for themselves. Ibn Saud used marriage policy to tie numerous Arab tribes to him and the dynasty, and conquest to expand his territory.
Nejd and her successor, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, chose not to join the League of Nations. The plan by the King of Hejaz to unite the Arabs in one state, presented to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, brought the Hejaz into conflict with Nejd. The Uqair Protocol of 1922 defined the border between Nejd on one, Iraq and Kuwait on the other side. The border with Jordan was agreed upon in 1925.

The Economy . The tribes of Nejd, Al Hasa and Shammar were pastoral nomads who engaged in caravan trade, the harvesting of palm dates, and where possible, the cultivation of wheat and barley. In 1925 a rising export of horses to Bombay (British India) and of camels to Egypt was noted (NIYB 1925 p.46)

Social History . The population estimate for the Sultanate of Nejd in 1925 is 3 million; the figure does not include Shammar for which another 250,000 were estimated. (NIYB 1925 p.46).

Cultural History . Wahhabism was the dominant interpretation of Islam.

Articles Nejd, Al Hasa, Shammar, Hejaz, Asir, Ibn Saud, Riyadh, Uqair Protocol of 1922, from Wikipedia
Wars of Saudi Arabia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Global Currency History : Saudi Arabia
History, from Saudi Arabia Information Resource
Regions of Saudi Arabia, from
Iraq-Saudi Arabia Boundary, International Boundary Study No.111, of 1971
Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Boundary, International Boundary Study No.103, of 1970
Jordan-Saudi Arabia, International Boundary Study No.60, of 1965
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Nejd, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Saudi Arabia, by B. Schemmel, scroll down for Nejd; Regnal Chronologies : Mesopotamia and Arabia, scroll down for Arabia, the Emirate of Najd 1720-1887
Other Arab Polities, from World Statesmen
Historical Population Statistics, Saudi Arabia, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Article Arabia, from EB 1911; from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Article Nejd, from EB 1911
Article Arabia, from EB 1902
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
The Letters of T.E. Lawrence
Gertrude Bell Letter Archive, Univ. of Newcastle
British Intelligence Reports on the Creation of Saudi Arabia, published by IDC Publishers
A Collection of First World War Military Handbooks of Arabia, 1913-1917, from Archive Editions
REFERENCE Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.13, pp.833-841 Article Arabia : Saudi Arabia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.13
Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia, Cambridge : UP 2002, KMLA Lib.Sign. 953.805 A459h
H.-J. Kornrumpf, Die osmanische Herrschaft auf der Arabischen Halbinsel im 19. Jahrhundert (1980), (Ottoman rule on the Arabian Peninsula in the 19th Century), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001 pp.39-50, in German [G]
H.-J. Kornrumpf, Zur osmanischen Herrschaft in Innerarabien im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (1984) (On Ottoman rule in Inner Arabia in the 19th and 20th centuries), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001 pp.85-94, in German [G]
J.E. Peterson, Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
Article : Turkey, Sultanate of Nejd and Hasa, in : Statesmn's Year Book 1918 p.xlvii [G]
Article Arabia Kingdom of Nejd, Kingdom of Hejaz, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1924 pp.658-659, 1925 pp.662-667 (data of 1923-1925) [G]
Article Arabia : Sultanate of Nejd, in : New International Year Book 1919 p.50, 1920 p.48, 1921 p.49, 1922 p.49, 1923 p.50, 1925 p.46 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 14th 2007, last revised on September 15th 2008

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