1892-1920 1959-1970

Muscat and Oman, 1920-1959

Administration . Since 1892 Oman was an informal British protectorate. From 1892 to 1949, Britain was represented by a consul, from 1949 to 1971, by a consul general. Oman is a monarchy.
The Treaty of Seeb of 1920 granted political autonomy to the Imamate of Oman, which covered the country's interior. In 1954 the Ibadi insurrection began, demanding full independence of the Imamate; with British aid it was suppressed by 1959, the Treaty of Seeb revoked.
Sultan Taimur ibn Faysal ruled from 1913 to 1932, Sultan Sa`id (III) ibn Taimur from 1932 to 1970.

Foreign Policy . In 1955 Muscat and Oman found itself in a border conflict with Saudi Arabia, over the Buraimi Oasis. Britain supported Muscat and Oman, which held on to the disputed area. In 1958 Muscat and Oman ceded the exclave of Gwadar to Pakistan.
The Sultanate of Zanzibar was tributary to Muscat & Oman since 1861.

The Economy . Omanis traditionally had been engaged in seafaring and trade. The Omani merchants had lost much of their market share to the British in the course of the 19th century, and the country, in the mid 20th century, was largely isolated. There was a traditional domestic economy based on the raising of livestock, agriculture, fishery.

Social History . The population estimate for 1920 is 290,000, that of 1959 is 494,000 (Lahmeyer).

Articles History of Oman, Said bin Taimur, Imamate of Oman, Taimur bin Faisal, Treaty of Seeb, Imam Ghalib bin Ali, from Wikipedia
History, from Oman Info
The War in Oman 1957-1959, by Mark Curtis
Oman 1957-1976, from Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth
DOCUMENTS Oman Statesmen : World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics, UAE, from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Arabia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1953 p.49, 1954 p.49, 1955 p.110-111, 1956 p.47 [G]
Article : Muscat and Oman, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1957 p.528, 1958 pp.466-467, 1959 p.462 [G]
Article : Arabia - Oman, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1924 pp.1168-1170, 1925 pp.668-669, 1926 pp.648-649, 1928 pp.655-656, 1929 pp.649-650, 1932 pp.653-654, 1937 pp.680-688, 1943 pp.694-696 [G]
Article : Arabia - Oman, in : Americana Annual 1930 p.58; Oman p.589, 1931 pp.61-62; Oman p.570, 1932 pp.40-41; Oman p.543, 1933 pp.40-41; Oman p.576, 1934 pp.48-49; Oman pp.449-450, 1935 pp.52-53; Oman p.536, 1936 pp.50-51; Oman pp.540-541, 1937 pp.42-43; Oman p.530 [G]
Article : Arabia - Muscat and Oman, in : Americana Annual 1943 pp.48-49, 1944 pp.51-52, 1945 pp.50-53, 1946 pp.56-58, 1947 pp.34-36, 1957 pp.40-41 [G]
Kings of the Middle East pp.554-572 in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 14th 2007, last revised on August 25th 2007

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