1932-1953







Hejaz and Nejd 1926-1932


Administration . Ibn Saud had taken control of Nejd in 1902, of al Hasa in 1914, of Shammar in 1921, of the Hejaz in 1924-1925, of parts of Asir from 1919 onward.
In January 1926, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud was crowned King of the Hejaz in the Grand Mosque of Mecca. From 1926 to 1932 he was addressed as King of Hejaz and Nejd.

Foreign Policy . The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd maintained close relations with the United Kingdom; Ibn Saud had been able to pursue his policy of expansion because of British arms supplies. In the Treaty of Jedda 1927, the British recognized Ibn Saud's conqust of the Hejaz.
Under Ibn Saud, the Hejaz withdrew from the League of Nations.
The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd continued to pursue an expansionist policy, in Asir (where the border with Yemen was defined in a 1934 treaty). The borders with Kuwait and Iraq had been delineated in 1922, the border with Jordan in 1925. The Rub al Khali (Empty Quarter) was claimed both by Hejaz & Nejd and by the British.
In 1926 a Pan-Islamic Congress was held in Mecca.
In 1926 the USSR, in 1931 the U.S.A. recognized the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. By 1932, the United Kingdom, the USSR, Turkey, Persia and the Netherlands maintained legations in Jedda; France, Italy and Egypt maintained unofficial consular representatives (StYB 1932 p.652).

The Economy . By 1930, the Hejaz and Nejd exported mainly animal hides, wool, horses, camels. The country produced dates, wheat, barley, meat, coffee, tobacco, mainly for domestic consumption. The only modern transportation available was the Hejaz railroad, which since 1918 was maintained by the government of Hejaz; in 1925 maintenance for the stretch from Amman to Ma'an had been transferred to the government of Palestine. The Hejaz railroad had suffered from the war (the conquest of the Hejaz by Nejd 1924-1925).

Domestic Events . Parts of the Ikhwan, a Wahhabi militia which had helped Ibn Saud in his conquests, in 1926 turned against the king because of his policies of modernization. They felt especially offended by the presence of many foreigners in the country. Loyal forces crushed the Ikhwan resistance by 1930.






EXTERNAL
FILES
Wars of Saudi Arabia, 1800-1999, from ACED
First Ikhwan Rebellion 1927-1928, from ACED
Second Ikhwan Rebellion 1929-1930, from ACED
Global Currency History : Saudi Arabia
Articles World Islamic Congress, Hejaz, Ibn Saud, Najd, Ikhwan, Treaty of Jedda, from Wikipedia
History, from Saudi Arabia Information Resource
Regions of Saudi Arabia, from www.statoids.com
Hejaz and Nejd Counterstamps on Maria Theresia Talers, from www.theresia.name
Saudi Arabia and the United States, 1931-2002, by Josh Pollack
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Hejaz, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Saudi Arabia, by B. Schemmel, scroll down for Hejaz; Regnal Chronologies : Mesopotamia and Arabia
Other Arab Polities, from World Statesmen
Historical Statistical data : Saudi Arabia, Provinces, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Article Arabia, from EB 1911; from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Article Arabia, from EB 1902
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Banknotes of Hejaz, from Numismondo
The Letters of T.E. Lawrence
Gertrude Bell Letter Archive, Univ. of Newcastle
British Intelligence Reports on the Creation of Saudi Arabia, published by IDC Publishers
A Collection of First World War Military Handbooks of Arabia, 1913-1917, from Archive Editions
REFERENCE Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.13, pp.833-841 Article Arabia : Saudi Arabia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.13
Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia, Cambridge : UP 2002, KMLA Lib.Sign. 953.805 A459h
H.-J. Kornrumpf, Die osmanische Herrschaft auf der Arabischen Halbinsel im 19. Jahrhundert (1980), (Ottoman rule on the Arabian Peninsula in the 19th Century), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001 pp.39-50, in German [G]
H.-J. Kornrumpf, Die Hedschasbahn und Alois Musil (1995) (The Hejaz Railrod and Alois Musil), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001 pp.291-298, in German [G]
J.E. Peterson, Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
Article Arabia Kingdom of Nejd, Kingdom of Hejaz, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1925 pp.662-667 (data of 1923-1925) [G]
Article Arabia : Hejaz, in : New International Year Book 1919 p.50, 1920 p.48, 1921 p.49, 1922 p.49, 1923 p.50, 1925 p.46 [G]
Article Arabia Kingdom of Nejd, Kingdom of Hejaz, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1925 pp.662-667 (data of 1923-1925) [G]
Article Arabia - Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1926 pp.644-647, 1928 pp.650-654, 1929 pp.645-648 [G]
Article : Arabia - Hejaz, Nejd and Hasa, Asir, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.46-47 (on events of 1926) [G]
Article : Arabia, in : Americana Annual 1928 pp.48-49 (on events of 1927) [G]
Article : Arabia - Hejaz and Nejd, in : Americana Annual 1930 p.58 (on events of 1929) [G]
Article : Arabia - Hejaz and Nejd, in : Americana Annual 1931 pp.61-62 (on events of 1930) [G]
Article : Arabia - Hejaz and Nejd, in : Americana Annual 1932 pp.40-41 (on events of 1931) [G]


This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 14th 2007, last revised on August 25th 2007

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