1973-1981 1990-2003

Saudi Arabia 1981-1990

Administration . King Khalid (1975-1982) was succeeded by his brother King Fahd (1982-2005).

Foreign Policy . The outbreak of the Iraq-Iran War in 1980 threatened the destabilization of the Gulf region. In 1981, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE and Oman established the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The GCC member states pursued a policy of neutrality until 1986; then they shifted toward supporting Iraq. Pilgrims from Iran visiting Mecca in 1987 rioted; Saudi police responded in an event which resulted in 402 dead.

The Economy . Third Five Year Development Plan 1980-1985, Fourth Five Year Development Plan 1985-1990.
In 1981, Saudi Arabia produced 489.4 million metric tons of crude petroleum, in 1985 158.4 million, in 1990 319.6 million (IHS p.364). The combination of low oil prices and a sharp reduction in Saudi oil production greatly affected Saudi revenues. A pipeline traversing Saudi Arabia was constructed in 1987, reducing the country's dependency on the shipping lines through the Gulf. Saudi Arabia pursued a policy of Saudizing the petrochemical and related industries.
King Khalid International Airport (Riyadh) was opened in 1983.

Social History . Jan Lahmeyer estimates the population of Saudi Arabia in 1981 as 9.55 million, in 1990 14.1 million.

Cultural History . Saudi Arab athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Los Angeles 1984 and Seoul 1988. The Saudi Arabian national football team won the Asian Cup in 1984 and 1988.

Wars of Saudi Arabia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Global Currency History : Saudi Arabia (B. Taylor)
Articles Khalid of Saudi Arabia, Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco, History of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia at the 1984 Summer Olympics, Saudi Arabia at the 1988 Summer Olympics, Saudi Arabia national football team, King Khalid International Airport, from Wikipedia
History, from Saudi Arabia Information Resource
Regions of Saudi Arabia, from www.statoids.com
Saudi Arabia and the United States, 1931-2002, by Josh Pollack
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Hejaz, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Saudi Arabia, by B. Schemmel
Historical Statistical data : Saudi Arabia, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.13, pp.833-841 Article Arabia : Saudi Arabia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.13
J.E. Peterson, Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
Article : Saudi Arabia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1981 pp.613-615, 1982 pp.614-616, 1983 pp.609-611, 1984 pp.611-612, 1985 pp.494-496, 773, 1986 pp.489-490, 772, 1988 pp.417-418, 692, 1989 pp.417-418, 692, 1990 pp.434-435, 708 [G]
Article : Saudi Arabia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1983-1984 pp.1038-1044, 1984-1985 pp.1035-1041, 1985-1986 pp.1037-1042, 1987-1988 pp.1041-1047, 1988-1989 pp.1045-1051, 1989-1990 pp.1057-1062, 1990-1991 pp.1058-1063 [G]
Article : Saudi Arabia, in : The World in Figures 4th ed. 1984 pp.194-195 [G]
Article : Saudi Arabia, in : Americana Annual 1989 pp.458-460, 1990 pp.456-458 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 15th 2007

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