Jebel Shammar, 1902-1921

Administration . From 1887 to 1902, the Emirate of Shammar included Nejd. In 1902 Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud retook Riyadh and reestablished the Emirate of Nejd. In 1921 Shammar was annexed by Nejd. The Emirate of Shammar was ruled by the al Rashid dynasty. The capital was Ha'il.

Foreign Policy . During World War I, the Emirate of Shammar was an ally of the Ottoman Empire, the neighbouring Emirate of Nejd an ally of Britain.

The Economy . The tribes of Shammar were pastoral nomads who engaged in caravan trade, the harvesting of palm dates, and where possible, the cultivation of wheat and barley.

Social History . The population estimate for the Emirate of Shammar in 1925 is 250,000. (NIYB 1925 p.46).

Wars of Saudi Arabia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Global Currency History : Saudi Arabia
Articles Shammar, Jebel Shammar, Ha'il, Rashidi, from Wikipedia
History, from Saudi Arabia Information Resource
Regions of Saudi Arabia, from
Al Hasa in 1914, the Forgotten Debacle, in : Enver Pasha and his Times, from Solving Problems through Force, by Glenn W. Stefanovics
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Jebel Shammar, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Saudi Arabia, by B. Schemmel, scroll down for Jebel Shammar; Regnal Chronologies : Ha'il
Other Arab Polities, from World Statesmen
Historical Statistical data : Saudi Arabia, Provinces, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer
Article Arabia, from EB 1911; from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Article Arabia, from EB 1902
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
The Letters of T.E. Lawrence
Gertrude Bell Letter Archive, Univ. of Newcastle
British Intelligence Reports on the Creation of Saudi Arabia, published by IDC Publishers
A Collection of First World War Military Handbooks of Arabia, 1913-1917, from Archive Editions
REFERENCE Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.13, pp.833-841 Article Arabia : Saudi Arabia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.13
Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia, Cambridge : UP 2002, KMLA Lib.Sign. 953.805 A459h
H.-J. Kornrumpf, Die osmanische Herrschaft auf der Arabischen Halbinsel im 19. Jahrhundert (1980), (Ottoman rule on the Arabian Peninsula in the 19th Century), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001 pp.39-50, in German [G]
H.-J. Kornrumpf, Zur osmanischen Herrschaft in Innerarabien im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (1984) (On Ottoman rule in Inner Arabia in the 19th and 20th centuries), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001 pp.85-94, in German [G]
J.E. Peterson, Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
Article : Turkey, Emirate of Jebel Shammar, in : Statesmn's Year Book 1918 pp.xlvii-xlviii [G]
Article Arabia Kingdom of Nejd, Kingdom of Hejaz, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1925 pp.662-667 (data of 1923-1925) [G]
Article Arabia : Emirate of Jebel Shammar, in : New International Year Book 1919 p.50, 1920 p.48, 1921 p.49, 1922 p.49, 1923 p.50, 1925 p.46 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 14th 2007, last revised on September 15th 2008

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