The Trucial States, 1892-1952

Administration . Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al Khaima, Sharjah and Umm al Qiwain were collectively referred to as the Trucial States, Trucial Coast, Trucial Sheikhdoms or Trucial Oman. A British protectorate since 1892, A British Political Officer (until 1953) for the Trucial States was subordinate to the British Resident for the Persian Gulf, residing in Bahrain; the latter, until 1946, was subordinate to the President of Bombay.
In 1900, Ras al Khaima was annexed into Sharjah; in 1921 it was separated from Sharjah again.

Foreign Policy . In 1904, upon British pressure, Persia evacuated the Tunb islands, and the flag of Sharjah, one of the Trucial Sheikhdoms, was raised. In 1945 Abu Dhabi and Dubai fought a brief border war.

The Economy . Prior to 1971, foreign gold and silver coins were used in the Trucial states; the Austrian Maria Theresia Thaler enjoying particular popularity. The traditional economy was based on shipping (piracy), fishery, pearl fishery and agriculture. Since the 19th century the British undertook measures to suppress piracy. Pearl fishing collapsed in the 1930es due to the emergence of the pearl industry in Japan. Abu Dhabi granted the first oil concession in 1939. Production did not begin prior to the 1960es. Aviation in the Trucial States (Royal Air Force) began in 1929.

Social History . In 1950 the population was estimated as 94,000; earlier estimates are rough (Lahmeyer). The first modern hospital, the Maktoum Hospital in Dubai, was opened in 1949 (Heard-Bey p.325).

Articles History of the United Arab Emirates, History of Dubai, Abu Dhabi : History, Ras al Khaima : History, Tunb Islands, from Wikipedia
Introduction, from Abu Dhabi International Airport
DOCUMENTS UAE Statesmen : World Statesmem, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics, UAE, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
REFERENCE Frauke Heard-Bey, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Dubai : Motivate Publishing (1982) 2004 [G]
IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Arabia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1945 p.58, 1946 pp.58-59, 1947 p.62, 1948 pp.58-59, 1949 pp.50-51, 1950 pp.53-54, 1951 p.53, 1952 p.50 [G]
Article : Arabia : The Trucial Sheiks, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1937 pp.686-687, 1943 pp.696-697 [G]
Article : Arabia - Trucial Sheiks, in : Americana Annual 1936 pp.50-51, 1937 pp.42-43, 1938 pp.44-45, 1939 pp.41-42, 1940 pp.38-39, 1943 pp.48-49, 1944 pp.51-52 [G]
Article : Arabia - Trucial Oman, in : Americana Annual 1945 pp.50-53, 1946 pp.56-58, 1947 pp.34-36 [G]
Kings of the Middle East pp.554-572 in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942
Article : Arabia - Trucial Oman, in : New International Year Book 1934 pp.38-39, 1935 pp.35-37, 1938 pp.41-44, 1939 pp.32-34, Events of 1940 pp.29-30, 1941 pp.27-29, 1942 pp.34-35, 1943 pp.35-36, 1944 pp.35-37, 1945 pp.39-41 [G]
Article : Arabia - Trucial Oman, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1935 pp.43-44, 1936 pp.38-39, 1937 pp.29-31, 1938 pp.29-31, 1939 pp.31-32, 1940 pp.32-33, 1941 p.31, 1942 pp.37-38, 1943 p.45, 1944 pp.34-35, 1946 pp.36-38, 1952 p.38; Trucial Oman 1952 p.429 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 14th 2007, last revised on August 25th 2007

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