1892-1952 1971-1990

The Trucial States, 1952-1971

Administration . Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al Khaima, Sharjah and Umm al Qiwain were collectively referred to as the Trucial States, Trucial Sheikhdoms or Trucial Oman. A British protectorate since 1892, A British Political Officer (until 1953) / Political Agent (1953-1971) for the Trucial States was subordinate to the British Resident for the Persian Gulf, residing in Bahrain.
In 1952 the Trucial States Council was formed.
Britain announced her intention to withdraw from the Gulf by 1971. In preparation for independence, the Federation of Arab Emirates was established in 1969, comprising of the seven Emirates which make up the UAE, Qatar and Bahrain. When the British withdrew in 1971, Bahrain and Qatar went it alone; the remainder formed the UAE in 1971-1972.

Foreign Policy . In 1955 Abu Dhabi's and Oman's possession of territory around the Buraimi Oasis was challenged by Saudi Arabia (Buraimi Crisis). Britain supported Abu Dhabi and Oman, which held on to the disputed area. The Trucial States were accepted into OPEC in 1967.

The Economy . Prior to 1971, foreign gold and silver coins were used in the Trucial states; the Austrian Maria Theresia Thaler enjoying particular popularity. From 1959 to 1966 the Gulf Rupee, pegged to the Indian Rupee, also was used. When India devaluated the Indian Rupee in 1966, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al Khaima, Sharjah and Umm al Qiwain switched to using the Dubai-Qatar Riyal; Abu Dhabi to using the Bahrain Dinar.
An agricultural trial station was established at Diqdaqah in 1955 (Heard-Bey p.326).
In 1962 the UAE produced 0.7 million metric tons of crude petroleum, in 1971 51.0 million (IHS p.362). The beginning of oil production made the establishment of a postal service necessary. From 1960 to 1964, the post office in Bahrain was responsible; the first postage stamps for Abu Dhabi were issued in 1964.
Electricity was introduced in Dubai in 1952. The Dubai Electrictity Authority and the Dubai Water Authority were both established in 1959, merged into DEWA in 1976. The UAE's first water desalination plant was established in 1960.

Social History . The estimated population of 1952 was 0.058 million, the estimated population of 1971 was 0.279 million (Lahmeyer). The first school was established in 1953 in Sharjah (Heard-Bey p.331).
The establishment of an oil industry in the 1960es brought an influx of foreigners.

Cultural History . TV broadcasting began in 1969.

Articles Qatari Riyal, History of the United Arab Emirates, Postage Stamps of Abu Dhabi, from Wikipedia
Old Dubai, from Sheikh Muhammad.com
Our History, from DEWA
DOCUMENTS UAE Statesmen : World Statesmem, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics, UAE, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
REFERENCE Frauke Heard-Bey, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Dubai : Motivate Publishing (1982) 2004 [G]
IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Arabia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1952 p.50, 1953 p.49, 1954 p.49, 1955 p.110-111, 1956 p.47 [G]
Article : Persian Gulf States, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1957 pp.603-604 [G]
Article : Trucial Sheikdoms, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1958 p.691, 1959 p.689 [G]
Article : Trucial States, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1960 p.689, 1961 p.687, 1962 p.681, 1963 p.797 [G]
Article : Protected States, Condominiums and Trust Territories, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1964 pp.694-695, 1965 pp.668-669, 1966 pp.635-636, 1967 pp.649-651, 1968 pp.648-650 [G]
Article : Dependent States : Trucial States, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1969 pp.278-279, 1970 pp.278-279, 1971 pp.267-269 [G]
Article : Trucial States, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1221-1223 [G]
Article : Arabia : Trucial Oman or Trucial States, in : Americana Annual 1957 pp.40-41 [G]
Article : Arabia - Trucial Oman, in : Americana Annual 1962 pp.40-41, 1963 pp.56-57, 1964 pp.57-58 [G]
Article : Persian Gulf States, in : Americana Annual 1969 p.529, 1970 p.533, 1971 p.528 [G]
Article : Arabia - Trucial Oman, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1952 p.38; Trucial Oman 1952 p.429, 1961 p.335 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 13th 2007

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