History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

First posted on January 23rd 2012, last revised on April 20th 2012









Political History . In 750 AD, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty. In 762 the capital was moved from Damascus to Baghdad, in 836 the capital was moved to Samarra; in 892 it was moved back to Baghdad. From 750 to the middle of the 9th century the Abbasid Caliphate extended from Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia) to Mawarannahr (modern Uzbekistan). Then provincial governors claimed independence Tulunid Egypt 868-905, Buwayhid Iran from 934.
The Buwayhid conquest of Baghdad 945 turned the Abbasid Caliphs into puppet rulers, under Buwayhid protection 945-1055, briefly under Fatimid protection 1058, then under Seljuq protection until 1135, when the Abbasids restored political independence, now controling Iraq. In 1258 Baghdad was destroyed by Hulagu Khan; Iraq became part of the Il-Khanate.
A branch of the Abbasid Dynasty, from 1260 to 1517, resided in Cairo, puppets of the Mamluk Sultans of Cairo.

Religious Policy . During the Abbasid Revolution (the movement which resulted in the overthrow of the Umayyad Dynasty, 749-750) the Abbasids appealed to Shi'ites dissatisfied with Umayyad rule. Once firmly established, the Abbasid Dynasty declared Sunni Islam (which was further defined during early Abbasid rule) the official interpretation of Islam. Shi'ites rejected Abbasid rule and suffered persecution. The Abbasid Caliphate experienced major rebellions, such as the Zanj (slaves in lower Iraq, 860-883), the Qarmatians (899-985) established an independent state in Eastern Arabia. In coastal Syria, the Alawi (a branch of the Shi'a) established autonomy.
In the 10th century, the rivals of the Abbasid Caliphs, the Buwayhids in Iran (934-1055) and the Fatimids in Ifriqiya (909-), later in Egypt (969-1171), made Shi'a Islam the official religion - and thus openly declared their break with the Abbasid Caliphate.
Over time, conversion of non-Muslims to Sunni Islam took place. The book religions (Christianity, Judaism, at first also Zoroastrianism) enjoyed toleration. Zoroastrianism then was deprived of the status of a book religion, and Zoroastrians suffered persecution. In Egypt Coptic Christians engaged in several major revolts, the last one taking place in 831-832.

Economy and Culture . Politically, the Abbasid Caliphs from the death of Harun al-Rashid on (809) became increasingly politically unstable; from the 860s onward, the Caliphate lost control of significant territories; provincial governors established independence; rebels held entire provnces. From 945 until 1135 the Abbasid Caliphs were puppets controlled by others, and when independence was restored (1135-1258) the authority of the Caliphs was limited to Iraq.
In cultural and economic history the Era of the Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) is generally described as the "Golden Age of Islam". South Asia, East Asia, Central Asia, Western Asia, the Mediterranean, East Africa and the Sahel Zone were better connected by trade routes (Silk Road, Indian Ocean Trade). Crops from East and South Asia, such as sugar cane, rice, citrus fruit were introduced to Western Asia and the Mediterranean (Arab Agricultural Revolution), Arab irrigation technique to Spain (qanats). The silver dirham became the standard currency of trade in the Muslim world. At the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, many scientific books were translated from languages such as ancient Greek or Egyptian into Arabic. At madrasas, scientific ideas were discussed and new books on astronomy, medicine, geography, mathematics, optics etc. were written.

Students' Papers : Kim, Sun Hoo, History of Food and Nutrition in West Asia (2009)






E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern Article : Abbasid Caliphate, from Wikipedia
Article : Abbasid Caliphate, from Islam Wiki
Historical Muhammad ibn Haukal [10th C.], The oriental geography of Ebn Haukal: an Arabian traveller of the tenth century 1800, GB
al-Idrisi, Tabula Rogeriana [1154], Wikipedia Article, scan of Arabic original from Gallica
Links
Organizations Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies
IRCICA, Istanbul
Phoenician International Research Center
Historical Dictionaries Encyclopedia Coptica
Encyclopaedia Iranica
Encyclopaedia Judaica Online
Encyclopedia Phoeniciana
Timelines
Accounts of History Modern Article : Abbasid Caliphate, from Wikipedia
Historical F.A. de Marigny, The history of the Arabians, under the government of the Caliphs, from Mahomet, their founder, to the death of Mostazem, the 56th and last Abassian Caliph, vol.1, 1758, vol.2, 1758, vol.3, 1758, vol.4, 1758, , GB
L.A. Sedillot, Histoire des Arabes, 1854, in French, GB
G. Weil, Geschichte der Chalifen vol.2 : Die Abbasiden bis zur Einnahme von Bagdad durch die Bujiden. 132-334 d. H.: 749-945 n. Chr., 1848, vol.3 : Von der Einnahme von Bagdad ... bis zum Untergange des Chalifats von Bagdad 945 - 1258 n. Chr., 1851, in German, GB
T.W. Arnold, Muslim Civilization during the Abbasid Period, 1923, IA
Specific Periods 750-945 R. Marin-Guzman, Arab Tribes, the Umayyad Dynasty, and the `Abbasid Revolution
G. van Vloten, De opkomst der Abbasiden in Chorasan 1890, in Dutch, IA
945-1135 D.G. Tor, A Tale of Two Murders: Power Relations between Caliph and Sultan in the Saljuq Era
P. Scharfe, Portrayals of the Later Abbasid Caliphs : The Role of the Caliphate in Buyid and Saljuq-era Chronicles, 936-1180, OhioLink
T. Udjang, The reign of the Caliph al-Qadir billah (381/991-422/1031), thesis McGill 2002
1135-1258 D.S. Margoliouth, The Eclipse Of The Abbasid Caliphate 1921, IA
The Alleged Role of Khawajah Nasir al-Din al-Tusi in the Fall of Baghdad
Administration Foreign Relations M. Forstner, Bemerkungen zum Wesirat unter den frühen Abbasiden, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft > Bd. 121 (1971), in German
Foreign Relations Huang Ming Xing, "Pax Islamica" and "Hua Yi Order" : An Analysis of the Relations between Abbasid Empire and China in Tang Dynasty 2008
M.T. Mansouri, Byzantium and the Arabs from the VIIth to the XIth Century
M.N. al-Mulaham, Political Relations between the Abbasid and the Byzantine States during the Reign of Haroon al-Rashid Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Islamic Knowledge (Shari'a) and the Arabic Language and Literature , 12 , 20, pp.613-667
Military Article : Ghilman, from Wikipedia
Category : Abbasid Generals, from Wikipedia
Category : Battles involving the Abbasid Caliphate, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Talas 751, from Wikipedia
Article : Byzantine-Arab Wars 780-1180, from Wikipedia
Article : Civil War in Palestine, 793-796, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Krasos 804-805, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Rayy 811, from Wikipedia
Article : Siege of Baghdad 812-813, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Anzen 838, from Wikipedia
Article : Sack of Damietta 853, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Lalakaon 863, from Wikipedia
Article : Caliphal Civil War 865-866, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Dayr al-'Aqul 876, from Wikipedia
Article : Siege of Baghdad 1157, from Wikipedia
Article : Siege of Baghdad 1258, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances General Measuring the Medieval Islamic Economy
M.D. Yusuf, Economic Survey of Syria during the 10th and 11th centuries 1985, MENA
Currency & Finances O. and B. Guvemli, The birth and development of the accounting Method in the Middle East (Merdiban Method)
B. Johansen, The Salam Contract : Law and Capital Formation in the Abbasid Empire (11th and 12th Centuries)
Trade Changes in International Trade, from Ashmolean Museum : Abbasid Ceramics
A. Mansour al-Shihab, Trade ties between the Arabian Gulf and India in the Abbasid Era (132-656 AH) : Oman as a Model
H. Manandian, The Commercial Importance of Armenia in the Period of the Arab Caliphate and the Bagratid Kingdom (1946) 1965, IA
F. Stüwe, Die Handelszüge der Araber unter den Abbasiden durch Afrika, Asien und Osteuropa, 1836, in German, MENA
J. Georg, Der nordisch-baltische Handel im Mittelalter, 1887, in German, MENA
Manufacture Article : Islamic Glass, from Wikipedia
Abbasid Silver Mints, from Measuring the Medieval Islamic Economy
Abbasid Ceramics, from Ashmolean Museum
Secrets retrouves du Lustre Abbasside, Revue Ceramique & Verre 139 2004, in French
Mining
Agriculture Article : Arab Agricultural Revolution, from Wikipedia
The Filaha Texts Project
Social History G. Algazi, R. Drory, L'Amour a la cour des Abbassides. Une code de competence sociale, Annales 55:6 2000 pp.1255-1282, in French
Articles : Arab Slave Trade, Zanj Rebellion 869-883, from Wikipedia
T. Noldeke, A Servile War in the East [The Zanj Slave Uprising in 9th Century Mesopotamia] 1892, IA
M. Tillier, Women before the qadi under the Abbasids, Islamic Law and Society 16 2009 pp.280-301
S.M. Ali, The Rise of the Abbasid Public Sphere : The Case of al-Mutannabbi and Three Middle Ranking Patrons, Al Qantarta XXIX 2 2008 pp.467-494
Ethnography S. Enderwitz, Gesellschaftlicher Rang und ethnische Legitimation : Der arabische Schriftsteller Abu Utman al-Gahiz (gest. 868) über die Afrikaner, Perser und Araber in der islamischen Gesellschaft 1979, in German, MENA
Religion General International Society for Iranian Studies : Religions of Abbasid Iran : Beliefs and Controversies
Article : Dhimmi, from Wikipedia
Islam Sunni Article : Sunni Islam, from Wikipedia
M.Q. Zaman, Early Abbasid Religious Policies and the Proto-Sunni Ulama, thesis McGill 1994
M.Q. Zaman, The Caliphs, the Ulama and the Law : Defining the Role and the Function of the Caliph in the Early Abbasid Period, 1997
Shi'a J.M. Hussain, The Occultation of the Twelfth Imam (A Historical Background), thesis 1982
Article : Persecution of Shia Muslims : Persecution under the Abbasids, 750-1258, from Wikipedia
Islamic Religion and Thought / Islamic Sects / Shia : Shi'a, Abbasids & other Governments, from IINY
Imam Jafar al-Sadiq's Attitude towards the Abbasid Caliphate, from Imam Reza Network, Shi'ite
Article : Shi'a-Sunni Relations : Abbasids, from Wikipedia
Alawi (Alevi) Article : Alawi : History, from Wikipedia
David Zeidan, The Alawis of Syria
Ismailism Article : Ismailism, from Wikipedia
History of the Ismailis, from History World
Qarmatians Article : Qarmatians, from Wikipedia
The origin of the Qarmatians, The Qarmatians in Bahrain, Decline of the Qarmatians, The Ismailis and the Qarmatians, from Ismaili.Net
Sufism Article : History of Sufism : Early History, from Wikipedia
Zoroastrianism Article : Persecution of Zoroastrians, from Wikipedia
K.E. Eduljee, Zoroastrian Revolutionary Sects in Post-Arab Iran, 650-850
History of Zoroastrians in Iran under the Caliphs, 650-10th Century, from Fezana Religious Education, Zoroastrian
K. Bahrami, Babak & Khorramdinan Movement
M. Ibrahim, Religious inquisition as social policy : the persecution of the 'Zanadiqa' in the early Abbasid Caliphate, Arab Studies Quarterly 1994
Judaism The Abbasids, from Jewish Virtual Library
C. Recknagel, A. Gorgin, The History of Jews in Persia/Iran
E. Chwat, Great Rabbis of the Muslim Empire, Jewish Virtual Library
Christianity Nestorian History, from nestorian.org
The Account of the Syriac Patriarch Dionysius of Tell-Mahre of the Last Coptic Bashmuric Revolt 831-832, from On Coptic Nationalism, 2012
The Causes and Results of the Last Bashmuric Revolt 831-832 according to the Coptic Encyclopedia, from On Coptic Nationalism, 2012
Regional History core Iraq Iraq under the Abbasids, from David Collection
G. le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate : Mesopotamia, Persia and Central Asia from the Moslem Conquest to the Time of Timur, 1905, MENA
Emirates Egypt The Abbasids, from Egypt State Information Service
Article : Tulunids, Fatimid Caliphate, Ayyubids, from Wikipedia
Tulunid Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
Ifriqiya Article : Ifriqiya, from Wikipedia
Article : Aghlabids, Fatimid Caliphate, from Wikipedia
Iran Article : Buyid Dynasty (Buwayhid), from Wikipedia
Articles : Abbasid Caliphate, Buyids, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Buwayhid Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
The Art of the Seljuqs in Iran c.1040-1157, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
G. le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate : Mesopotamia, Persia and Central Asia from the Moslem Conquest to the Time of Timur, 1905, MENA
Khorasan Article : Samanids, from Wikipedia
Article : Greater Khorasan : History, from Wikipedia
C. Shahmiri, History of Iran : Samanid Dynasty
P. Kessler, Samanid Emirate
S. Kamoliddin, On the Religion of the Samanid Ancestors, Transoxania 11 2006, To the Question of the Origin of the Samanids Transoxania 10 2005
Islamic Ceramics : Samanid Ceramics, from Ashmolean Museum
Map : Samanid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
The Samanids, from David Collection
A. Hiloli, The Importance of the Samanid State in The History of Islamic Civilization
History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4 : The Age of Achievement : A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century, Part One : The Historical, Economic and Social Setting
Samanid Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
G. le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate : Mesopotamia, Persia and Central Asia from the Moslem Conquest to the Time of Timur, 1905, MENA
N. Syria Article : Hamdanids, from Wikipedia
Hamdanid Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
M.D. Yusuf, Economic Survey of Syria during the 10th and 11th centuries 1985, MENA
Sistan Article : Saffarid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Saffarids, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Saffarid Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
G. le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate : Mesopotamia, Persia and Central Asia from the Moslem Conquest to the Time of Timur, 1905, MENA
Local History Gaston Wiet, Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate., excerpt, Internet Medieval Sourcebook
G. le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate from contemporary Arabic and Persian Sources, 1900, IA, MENA
S. Khan, Jerusalem under the Rule of the Abbasid Caliphate, 750-1258; Jerusalem Archaeological Park : The Abbasid Period (750-940 CE)
History of Samarra, from Samarra Archaeological Survey
S. Heidemann, al-Raqqa at the Euphrates: Urbanity, Economy and Settlement Pattern in the Middle Abbasid Period
F. Wüstenfeld, Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka, vol.1, 1858, vol.4, 1861, MENA
C. Snouck Hurgronje, Mekka vol.1 : Die Stadt und ihre Herren, 1888, vol.2 : Aus dem heutigen Leben 1889, in German, MENA
M. Müller-Wiener, Eine Stadtgeschichte Alexandrias von 564/1169 bis in die Mitte des 9./15. Jahrhunderts, Verwaltung und innerstädtische Organisationsformen, 1992, in German, MENA
Institutions Article : House of Wisdom, Baghdad
Culture Art of the Abbasid Period, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Baghdad, Samarra, from ArchNet Digital Library
S. Blair, J. Bloom, Islamic Architecture : Abbasid Period
Abbasid Ceramics, from Ashmolean Museum
R. Drory, The Abbasid Construction of the Jahiliyya : Cultural Authority in the Making, Studia Islamica 1996/I pp.38-49
M.J. Smith, From the Quran to Algebra : The Abbasid Caliphate's Patronage of Al-Khwarizmi's Algebraic Innovation
Biographies Ibn Khallikan [1211-1282], Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary, Wikipedia Article, English trsl. vol.1 1868, vol.2 1843, vol.3 1868, GB
Middle Eastern Natural Philosophers, from GLPS2 Wiki
Category : Abbasid Generals, from Wikipedia
Others G. Ferrand, Introduction a l'Astronomie Nautique Arabe 1928, in French, MENA

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Caliphs : Abbasid Caliphs, from Wikipedia
Documents Image Databanks
Archive Deposits Nabil al-Tikriti, Iraq Manuscript Collections, Archives & Libraries : Situation Report, 2003
L. Reinfandt, Administrative Papyri from the Abbasid Court in Samarra (AD 836-892) - a preliminary report, 2011
Islamic Medical Manuscripts, National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
Bibliotheque Nationale, Departement des Manuscrits, Catalogue des Manuscrits Arabes, 1883-1895, MENA
Bibliotheque Nationale, Catalogue des Manuscrits Arabes des Nouvelles Acquisitions (1884-1924) 1925, MENA
A. Mingana, Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts in the John Rylands Library, Manchester, 1934, MENA
Die Arabischen Handschriften der Herzoglichen Bibliothek zu Gotha, vol.3 1881, vol.4 1883, vol.5 1892, MENA
B.A. Dorn, Catalogue des Manuscrits et Xylographs Orientaux de la Bibliotheque Imperiale Publique de St. Petersbourg, 1852, MENA
V. Rosen, Les manuscrits arabes de l'Institut des Langues Orientales 1877, MENA
V. Rosen, Notices sommaires des manuscrits arabes du Musée Asiatique vol.1 1881, MENA
V. Rosen, Remarques sur les Manuscrits Orientaux de la Collection Marsigli a Bologne suivies de la liste complete des Manuscrits Arabes de la meme Collection 1885, MENA
W.H. Morley, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Historical Manuscripts in the Arabic and Persian Languages preseved in the Library of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1854, MENA
E.H. Palmer, Catalogue of the Oriental Manuscripts in the Library of King's College,Cambridge 1867, MENA
J. Aumer, Die Arabischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in Muenchen 1866, in German, MENA
L. Cheikho, Catalogue Raisonne des Mss. Historiques de la Bibliotheque Orientale de la Universite St. Joseph 1913, in French, MENA
O. Loth, A Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts in the Library of the India Office 1877, MENA
Die Handschriften der Grossherzoglich-Badischen Landesbibliothek in Karlsruhe : II : Die orientalischen Handschriften 1892, MENA
H. Derenbourg, Les Manuscrits Arabes de l'Escurial, II.1 : Morale et Politique, 1903, MENA
H. Derenbourg, Notes Critiques sur les Manuscrits Arabes de la Bibliotheque Nationale de Madrid, 1904, MENA
J. von Hammer, Die morgenländischen Handschriften der K.K. Hofbibliothek, n.d., MENA
Catalogue of Several Hundred Manuscript Works Collected by Sir William Ouseley 1831, MENA
Catalogue des manuscrits arabes conservés dans les principales bibliotheques algeriennes 1907, MENA; ditto vol.1, vol.2, 1907, MENA
J.G. Wetzstein, Catalog Arabischer Manuscripte / In Damascus gesammelt von J. G. Wetzstein 1863, MENA
Oriental manuscripts purchased in Turkey, a catalogue of the collection of John Lee 1840, MENA
Bibliotheca Lindesiana, Hand-List of Oriental Manuscripts, Arabic, Persian, Turkish 1898, MENA
E.G. Browne, A Hand-List of the Muhammadan Manuscripts, including all those written in the Arabic Character, preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge 1900, MENA
M. Weisweiler, C. Seibold, Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften, Universitätsbibliothek Tübingen, 1907, in German, MENA
A. Rahlfs, Syrische Handschriften, c.1890, MENA
M. Hartmann, Die Arabischen Handschriften der Sammlung Haupt, 1906, MENA
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties
Document Surveys F. Wüstenfeld, Die Geschichtsschreiber der Araber und ihre Werke, 1882, in German, MENA
Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Historiography Al-Fakhri, trsl. by E. Amar, Archives Marocaines XVI 1910, MENA (histoire des dynasties musulmanes ; depuis la mort de Mahomet jusqu'a la chute du khalifat Abbaside de Baghdad (11-656 de l'hegire)
Document Collections
Individual Documents al-Tabari, Chronicle [838-923], Wikipedia Article, French trsl. vol.1 1836, GB
vol.1 1867, GB, vol.2 1869, GB, vol.3 1871, GB, vol.4 1867, IA
al-Masudi, Meadows of Gold, Wikipedia Article, English trsl. vol.1 1841, IA, French trsl. vol.1 1861, vol.2 1863, vol.3 1864, vol.4 1865, vol.5 1869, vol.6 1870, vol.7 1873, vol.8 1874, vol.9 1877, IA
H.F. Amedroz (ed.), The eclipse of the 'Abbasid caliphate; original chronicles of the fourth Islamic century vol.2 1921, vol.4 1921, vol.5 1921, vol.6 1921, vol.7 1921, IA
J.A. Vullers (trsl.), Mirchoud's Geschichte der Seldschuken, 1837, in German, GB
Historical Maps Map : Abbasid Caliphate c.850, from Wikipedia
Map : Abbasid Caliphate, Emirates c.950, from Wikipedia
Map of how Baghdad was planned, from Ashmolean Museum
Abbasid Caliphate administrative 786-809, posted by C. Smeller
The break-up of the Abbasid Caliphate 778-900, posted by Iran Politics Club
Abbasid Caliphate and Fragmentation, 786-1194, QED : Mapping Globalization
Eastern Hemisphere 800 AD, 800 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, from Thomas Lessman's Atlas of World History
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles : Abbasids, Caliphate, from EB 1911
Religious
Geographical
Historical
Travelogues Muhammad ibn Haukal [10th C.], The oriental geography of Ebn Haukal: an Arabian traveller of the tenth century 1800, GB
Benjamin of Tudela, Itinerary [1173], Wikipedia Article, Engl. trsl. Adler 1907, posted on Teach it to me
Institutions Archives Iraq National Library and Archive
Musea The Iraq Museum
Monuments Baghdad, Samarra, from ArchNet Digital Library
Libraries Iraq National Library and Archive
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins Abbasid Coins, from Masquqat Collection, from Oriental Coins Database
Coins of the Abbasid Governors in Tabaristan, from Fitzwilliam Museum

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on the Caliphate G. Gabrieli, Manuale di Bibliografia Musulmana I. Generale 1916, MENA
K. Schwarz, Verzeichnis deutschsprachiger Hochschulschriften zum islamischen Orient (1885-1970) : Deutschland-Österreich-Schweiz, 1971, MENA
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on the Caliphate Sondersammelgebiet Vorderer Orient Digital
Online Journals on the Caliphate contents online Arab Repository The Arab Repository is the first web site to present Arab world journals through a single portal in a form of an Open Database
Persee (Digital Library of Academic Journals, Maintained in France)
Syria. Archéologie, Art et histoire 1920-, Persee
Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterranee 1966-1999, Persee
Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 1847-, in German
Arab Studies Quarterly 1993-2009
Transoxania 1-14, 2000-2009
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries